Alignment: Overall Summary

Pathways to Reading Grade 2 materials reviewed partially meet the criteria for alignment to standards and research-based practices for foundational skills instruction.

Materials contain explicit instructions for systematic and repeated teacher modeling of all grade-level phonics standards; however, reading of complete words is limited to calling on students during "Large Group" instruction which may not provide opportunities for all students to read complete words. Students have frequent opportunities to build/manipulate/spell and encode grade-level phonics, including common and newly-taught sound and sound patterns. Materials provide explicit systematic teacher modeling and instruction for encoding of phonics during "Segment and Write," and "Spelling" lessons.

Materials meet the criteria for materials include systematic instruction of high-frequency words and practice opportunities of high-frequency words to develop automaticity. Students have frequent practice opportunities to read and write high-frequency words in sentences during "Small Group" lessons. Explicit instruction in word analysis is provided with sample dialogue. Materials provide limited instructional opportunities for explicit instruction with fluency through small group lessons. Explicit instruction in rate is not evident in the materials. Opportunities for students to progress in oral reading fluency over the course of the school year lack in variety, frequency, and fluency feedback.

On-level texts included with the program are limited to weekly spelling paragraphs. While grade-level books are referenced in the materials, the books are not included in the program.

See Rating Scale Understanding Gateways

Alignment

|

Partially Meets Expectations

Gateway 1:

Standards and Research-Based Practices

0
19
32
40
30
32-40
Meets Expectations
20-31
Partially Meets Expectations
0-19
Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway 2:

Implementation, Support Materials & Assessment

0
21
38
44
30
38-44
Meets Expectations
22-37
Partially Meets Expectations
0-21
Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway One

Alignment to Standards and Research-Based Practices for Foundational Skills Instruction

Partially Meets Expectations

+
-
Gateway One Details

Pathways to Reading Grade 2 materials reviewed partially meet the criteria for alignment to standards and research-based practices for foundational skills instruction. Materials contain explicit instructions for systematic and repeated teacher modeling of all grade level phonics standards; however, reading of complete words is limited to calling on students during "Large Group" instruction which may not provide opportunities for all students to read complete words. Students have frequent opportunities to build/manipulate/spell and encode grade-level phonics, including common and newly-taught sound and sound patterns. Materials provide explicit systematic teacher modeling and instruction for encoding of phonics during "Segment and Write," and "Spelling" lessons.

Materials meet the criteria for materials include systematic instruction of high-frequency words and practice opportunities of high-frequency words to develop automaticity. Students have frequent practice opportunities to read and write high-frequency words in sentences during "Small Group" lessons. Explicit instruction in word analysis is provided with sample dialogue. Practice opportunities are varied and include both whole group and partner work. Materials provide limited instructional opportunities for explicit instruction with fluency through small group lessons. Explicit instruction in rate is not evident in the materials. Opportunities for students to progress in oral reading fluency over the course of the school year lack in variety, frequency, and fluency feedback.

Materials partially meet the criteria for materials provide teacher guidance to support students as they confirm or self-correct errors and emphasize reading for purpose and understanding. On-level texts included with the program are limited to weekly spelling paragraphs. While grade-level books are referenced in the materials, the books are not included in the program.

Criterion 1f - 1j

Materials emphasize explicit, systematic instruction of researched-based and/or evidence-based phonics.
16/20
+
-
Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Grade 2 materials contain explicit instructions for systematic and repeated teacher modeling of all grade level phonics standards; however, reading of complete words is limited to calling on students during "Large Group" instruction which may not provide opportunities for all students to read complete words. Students have frequent opportunities to build/manipulate/spell and encode grade-level phonics, including common and newly-taught sound and sound patterns. Materials provide explicit, systematic teacher modeling and instruction for encoding of phonics during "Segment and Write," and "Spelling" lessons.

Indicator 1f

Materials emphasize explicit phonics instruction through systematic and repeated modeling.
4/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 2 meet the criteria for materials emphasize explicit phonics instruction through systematic and repeated modeling.

Materials provide teachers with sample dialogue to present explicit phonics instruction to students. Teachers are provided with instructions for teaching phonics and students have multiple practice opportunities with skills. The Teacher Manuals continue to provide dialogue samples for repeated lessons or refer the teacher back to the introductory lesson. The online video library is referenced as a resource for teacher modeling in applicable lessons.

Materials contain explicit instructions for systematic and repeated teacher modeling of all grade level phonics standards. For example, the following is noted:

  • Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 20-21, the teacher identifies short ("Sound Bus") and long ("Name Bus") vowel spellings. “The letter -e is put at the end of vowels to make a vowel letter have a sound like its name. Because of that I like to think of -e as 'What’s-your-name-e.' Let me show you (Place the -e after the letter - a)...The letter -a answers: '/ae/'. So when you see, “What’s-your-name-e after a vowel, that vowel has to say its name.”
    • In the Small Group Folder, page 4, Words Lists 19-24 are provided for -e to end and 2 ee’s. The word lists contain both short and long vowel words. It provides sample dialogue, “How do you spell the /ae/ sound. Why did you spell it that way? We do need that -e. Where did Screech say -e needs to go? What is the vowel sound? When -a says its name what has to go with it?” The same dialogue is repeated for /ee/.
  • Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 94-95, the teacher teaches long vowel sounds using the "Vowel Team Chart."
    • In the "Small Group Manual," page 116, sounds and spelling for ai, ay, ea, oa are introduced. The video library set 10 "Two Vowels Go Walking" is referenced as a resource. The teacher introduces the "Screech" poster for "Two Vowels Go Walking." Materials provide a sample dialogue to segment and write beast, “Let’s keep the two vowels go walking in mind when we segment and write the word beast. Show me with your fingers how many sounds are in the word beast. There are four. Use the magnet letter to spell the sound /b/.” The teacher is given sample dialogue to complete spelling beast and the word tray.
  • Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 59, students learn about multisyllable words where the vowel says its name. The teacher is provided with words to have students analyze such as paper, shiny, driver, and frozen.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 243-248, in the multisyllable lesson "Video Library," set 13 is referenced for the modeling of the lesson. A sample dialogue is provided for the teacher to use the word frozen to discuss syllables and whether they have a name or sound hat (i.e., short or long vowel) when the word is divided.
  • Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes:
    • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 214-216, in the multisyllable "Instant Syllables -ing Ending," the teacher writes the word shouting on the board. The teacher is given a sample dialogue for the steps in the lesson. The section for "Read Words with -ing Ending" includes, “Look at each word in this list. Can you instantly find the ending -ing?” Words used in the lesson include dropping, grabbing, strapping, filling, plodding, and dragging.
    • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 217-218, the teacher is given a sample dialogue, “What’s the suffix or ending you see in these words on the left?” The teacher is to help the students notice the -y and -ly. “What do you think of for a -y when it’s at the end of a multisyllable word?” The teacher is to provide /ee/ for students.
  • Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences:
    • In the "Small Group Manual," page 127, students learn that the /oo/ sound may be spelled -oo or -ue. The teacher directs students to segment and write spool and plume. As they discuss ue as the /oo/ sound, the sample dialogue is provided, “Now let’s look at how you spelled the /oo/ sound. We would expect to spell /oo/ with 2 o’s like we did in the last word. But in many words the /oo/ sound is spelled -u-e.”
    • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 131-132, students learn that g can only represent the /j/ sound if it is followed by e, i or y. The teacher has students segment gent and spell it with letter tiles. The teacher discusses the "Screech" poster with the students, “Let’s find out when g can have the /j/ sound.”

Lessons provide teachers with systematic and repeated instruction for students to hear, say, encode, and read each newly taught grade level phonics pattern. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 77, teachers are provided with instructions for a "Sort the Ending" activity in which students practice multisyllable words. The teacher is instructed to, “Give partners sets of all 'Instant Syllable' strategies learned to date. Mix them up. Tell the partners to find ways to sort the sounds into 'Instant Syllable' sets. Once the words are sorted, each student reads each list of words to the other. Each must agree with the other before moving on.”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 5, materials explain the process for instruction: “Students are made aware that they need to develop visual memory for words. They analyze each word and highlight any spelling that requires visual memory. Throughout the week students do exercises with the words that require visual memory. The words are seen and spelled often.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 127, the teacher says the word spool. The teacher reviews the number of sounds in spool. Students use markers to spell the word.

Indicator 1g

Materials include daily practice opportunities for students to decode words that consist of common and newly-taught sound and spelling patterns and provide opportunities for students to review previously taught phonics skills.
2/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 2 partially meet the criteria for materials include frequent practice opportunities for students to decode words that consist of common and newly-taught sound and spelling patterns and provide opportunities for students to review previously taught phonics skills.

The materials provide opportunities to practice decoding skills over the course of the instructional sequence during "Small Group" instruction for students' current level of foundational skills instruction; however, during "Large Group" instruction of grade-level decoding skills, all students may not be provided the opportunity to practice applying phonics skills. Since a student may be working in a small group that is not at grade-level, there is no guarantee that all students will have opportunities to apply grade-level phonics skills. Activities and games students learn are repeated consistently throughout the materials and allow students to practice and apply what they are learning.

Lessons provide students with some daily opportunities to decode phonemes, onset and rime, and/or syllables in phonetically-spelled words. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 58, students practice identifying the sounds associated with different vowel spellings using the "Vowel Town" chart. The teacher points to a vowel spelling on the chart and asks students, “What’s this sound?” For example, the teacher points to: ae, oi, oy, oo, au, and aw.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 71, students play the "Spot the Vowel" game with ladders. The teacher tells students, “We’re going to pretend you’re a fireman and you are practicing climbing ladders in order to save people. It’s really important that you learn to go up and down that ladder fast.” Students must then say the vowel sounds in the “ladder” of words as quickly as possible.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 150, the teacher uses word reading lists to help students use the following strategy to read words, “1. Tell us the vowel sound. 2. Tell us the rime. What part of the word is the rime? (R) 3. Tell us the onset. What part is the onset? (R) 4. Tell us the word.” As the lesson progresses, students work to complete the steps of decoding more independently, “This time I want each of you to read 3 words. Take time to look at the word carefully and think onset/rime. We leave it up to you to be accurate.”
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 7, the “Say on Own/Cover It” activity for "Vowel Practice 2" asks students to spell the sounds for /ou/, /oi/. The teacher covers the spelling with his or her hand and uncovers as students attempt the spelling.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 348, students study words with the prefix re-. The teacher is instructed to “Choose a student to read this week’s words. Class echo reads. The words for the week are: return, refill, reheat, redraw, recapture, recycle, redo, regrow, rebuild, and reconnect."
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 359, students study words with the prefix un-. In this lesson the teacher is instructed to, “Choose a student to read this week’s words. Class echo reads. The words for the week are: unable, undecided, unfair, unhappy, unpack, unzip, undo, uncover, unkind, and unbutton."

Lessons provide students with daily opportunities for some students to read complete words by saying the entire word as a unit using newly taught phonics skills during "Small Group" instruction; however, not all students read complete words during "Large Group" instruction. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 75, the teacher directions state, "Call on students to read the words. Ask each student:
      • What's the ending?
      • T: What's the word?
      • T: Is the vowel long: wearing its name hat or short: wearing its sound hat?"
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 96, during the "Segment and Write" lesson that focuses on the ee spelling, students practice reading words with the pattern. The teacher shows students the list of ee words to read: sleep, steep, sweep, bleed, need, sheep.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 103-104, during a "Segment and Write" lesson that focuses on the qu- spelling, the teacher presents students with the following list of qu- words to read: queen, quest, quick, quit.
  • In the Small Group Folder, students read words using "SNAP and Map" cards for practice. These words have various phonics skills focused on sh, ch, and long vowels such as ae, ee, ie, oe, and ue. The "Read Words" activity is practiced on Days 1, 3, and 5 in the Level 3 "Small Group Lesson Plan."

Materials contain daily opportunities for students to review previously learned grade level phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 85, students review multisyllable words. The teacher holds up flash cards and asks students to “Say the ending,” then “Say the word.” A spelling component is also provided where the teacher covers the final syllable and then asks students to spell it.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 70, the materials provide "Vowel Ladder" sets for practice: "Short Vowels, Long Vowels with e, Two Vowels Walking, Vowel Buddies, R Vowels, and Ladder 6 All Vowels." The "Vowel Ladders" build upon weekly practice.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 72, the "Segment and Write" lessons include phonics skills such as th, ch, -y at the end. In the "Small Group Folder," Level 3 lesson plan, students practice those same phonics skills weekly during "Segment and Write" on Days 1 and 2.

Materials contain a variety of methods to promote students’ practice of previously taught phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 103-104, materials provide "Multisyllable Tricky Ending" activities that include: "Spot the Suffix, Say the Ending Say the Word, Sort the Tricky Suffix, Suffix Challenge, and Spelling Suffix Challenge."
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 51-71, "Vowel Practice" exercises provided include: "Say on Own/Cover it, Find it, Cross the River, Write Across the River, Spot the Vowel with Spot the Vowel Flashcards, and Spot the Vowel with Ladders."
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 151, students practice reading words with a partner. Partners take turns being the teacher and the student asking each other the following questions, “1. What’s the vowel? 2. What’s the rime? 3. What’s the word?”

Indicator 1h

Materials provide frequent opportunities for students to practice decoding phonetically regular words in a sentence.
2/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet the criteria for materials promote frequent opportunities for students to practice decoding phonetically regular words in a sentence.

Pathways to Reading materials provide students with some opportunities to practice decoding phonetically regular words in sentences and a paragraph through Pathways to Spelling lessons. Paragraphs included in the "Spelling Manual," contain words and spelling patterns that students are working on mastering. In Grade 2, the spelling sentences are read on Day 2 and the paragraph is read on Day 4. There are "Read in Context" lessons in Grade 2, but these lessons focus on decodable books that are not included with the program. Based on the materials included in the program, students only read sentences on Days 2 and 4.

Materials provide explicit, systematic practice for decoding phonetically regular words in a sentence. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 181, during the "Read in Context" lesson the teacher is advised, “In all instances assist with decoding errors as needed using ‘Read Words’ from Flip and Assist.” The "Flip and Assist Manual," page 23, prompts the teacher to question the student, “What’s the vowel? Read vowel to the end. Start again. Is that a word you know? What’s the word?”
  • In the "Screech and Me Student Book," Lesson 1, Day 4, students read a paragraph that contains the cheater words of, was, want, and from. The spelling focus is /th/ and /sh/ words. Sentences found in the paragraph include, “This hat is made from the ship in the bay,” and “It is made of red cloth.”
  • In the "Screech and Me Student Book," materials include weekly take home lessons with two sentences of the week that contain the phonetically regular words of the week:
    • Lesson 6, focus: ai, ea, ay; sentences for the week: 1) "Their ship will reach the earth in a year;" 2) "Where is the tray I paint and play with?"
    • Lesson 15, focus -er, provides two sentences for students to read that include phonetically regular words: 1) "My kind mother gave water to the sick dog;" 2) "The old man can never remember his car number."

Lessons provide students with opportunities to decode words in a sentence. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 1, materials state, “Pathways to Spelling is a second grade spelling program consisting of 30 weekly lessons designed to begin the second nine weeks of the school year. Through daily, 20-25 minute lessons, students are introduced to a new list of ten words, two sentences, and phonics guides each week.”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 12, students read a paragraph that contains the week’s cheater words. Students color the cheater words in yellow.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 17, students read the sentences: “I want to fish from the ship,” and “A bit of red cloth was in the trash.”

Indicator 1i

Materials include daily practice opportunities for students to build/manipulate/spell and encode grade-level phonics, including common and newly-taught sound and sound patterns.
4/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 2 meet the criteria for materials include frequent practice opportunities for students to build/manipulate/spell and encode grade-level phonics, including common and newly-taught sound and sound patterns.

Students have frequent opportunities over the course of the school year to write and build new words. Phonics practice is completed in the "Small Group, Large Group, and Spelling Manuals." Students write words using markers or magnetic letters on their whiteboards. Teacher instructions for these routines are clear. Instructional routines are consistent throughout the school year.

The materials contain teacher-level instruction/modeling for building/manipulating/spelling, and encoding words using common and newly-taught sound and spelling patterns of phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 80-81, in a "Segment and Write" lesson that focuses on the word brunch, the teacher explains a trick students can use to remember the ch spelling pattern. “T: -h chart in view. Look at the letter -c. My trick for -ch is that /ch/ always makes me think of sneezing. /ch/! /ch/! I think of the letter -c as the mouth opening up to let out a sneeze. (Point to the open part of the -c on the -h chart.) So I think of /ch/ as the brother with allergies. He can’t ever quite get his sneeze out though. Instead of saying /choo/ he gets stuck. He says /ch/.../ch/.../ch/...but never quite gets to /choo/.” Students segment and write words with ch.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 127-128, students learn that the /oo/ sound may be spelled -oo or -ue. Students segment and write spool and plume. As they discuss -ue as the /oo/ sound, the sample dialogue is provided, “Now let’s look at how you spelled the /oo/ sound. We would expect to spell /oo/ with 2 o’s like we did in the last word. But in many words the /oo/ sound is spelled -u-e.” Students write words with -oo or -u-e.

Lessons provide students with daily opportunities to build/manipulate/spell and encode words in isolation based in common and newly-taught phonics patterns. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 80-88, "Multisyllable Lessons 7-8" include endings -y, -ly and -er. Following the lessons, students practice decoding words with the endings ten minutes a day for the rest of the week. Day 4 practice includes a "Spelling" component in which students are asked about the ending of the word and asked to say the word then spell the ending. A "Sort the Ending" activity is provided.

In the "Small Group Manual," pages 136-137, students complete a "Segment and Write" lesson that focuses on the word smidge. Students practice writing words with -dge and -ge.

  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 138-140, students complete a "Segment and Write" lesson that focuses on the word switch.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," pages 77-81, students review the long vowel /ee/, 2-e’s stick together by segmenting the words street, need, feet, greets, here, and keep, and identifying how many sounds using their fingers. Students spell the words before writing them independently.

Indicator 1j

Materials provide application and encoding of phonics in activities and tasks. (mid K-Grade 2)
4/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the criteria for materials promote application and encoding of phonics in activities and tasks. (mid K-Grade 2)

Pathways to Reading materials provide explicit systematic teacher modeling and instruction for encoding of phonics. The "Segment and Write" routine provides students with numerous opportunities over the course of the school year to apply their phonics knowledge to writing. Students practice writing individual words using "Segment and Write." The materials provide opportunities to apply phonics skills to encode words in sentences or phrases in "Pathways to Spelling" lessons.

Materials include explicit, systematic, teacher-level instruction of teacher modeling that demonstrates the use of phonics to encode sounds to letters, and words in writing tasks. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 100-101, the teacher models: “How many syllables in the word capture? What’s the first syllable in capture? Tell me how to spell /cap/. What’s the last syllable? What are the sounds in /cher/? (Write each sound as students say it.) Those are the sounds we hear in /cher/. Sometimes it is spelled that way. But more often it’s spelled in a tricky way...the /ch/ sound is spelled with -t-u. The /er/ sound is spelled with -r-e. Let’s look at some words with /cher/ endings.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 78, students segment and write flash with the new sound /sh/. The teacher tells students there are four sounds in the word flash and asks, “What is the first sound?” The teacher tells students, “Put /f/ on the first sound dot.” The teacher continues to tell the students to put the appropriate letters on the sound dots for each letter until they finish spelling flash.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 133, students complete a "Segment and Write" lesson on the word, large. As part of the lesson, the teacher tells students, “When the sound /j/ is at the end of a word it is always, always spelled with the two letters -g and -e. We know that -e is one of the letters that lets -g have the /j/ sound. It’s always there with -g at the end of words that need the /j/ sound.”

Lessons provide students with frequent activities and tasks to promote application of phonics as they encode words in sentences or in phrases based on common and newly taught phonics patterns. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 11, students practice writing two sentences that are dictated by the teacher. For example, using PowerPoint, Lesson 4, Day 3, Slide 2, the teacher dictates the following 2 sentences to students, “Was the trash there by the tree where she left it?” and “They will make their fire close to the three tents.”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 168, students work with sound letter spellings of c=/s/ and g=/j/ in the sentences, “The large man knew he could sing with a nice voice. Did the new man go into space?” The overview for "Whole Group" on Day 1 states that students read and spell new words and sentences, and segment and spell words.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 257, practice writing, proofing, and “imaging” correspond to the sounds for the week. The sentences are “The ship carried food to many countries,” and “How many stories have you copied?”

Criterion 1k - 1m

Materials and instruction support students in learning and practicing regularly and irregularly spelled high-frequency words.
8/8
+
-
Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Grade 2 materials meet the criteria for materials include systematic instruction of high-frequency words and practice opportunities of high-frequency words to develop automaticity. Students have frequent practice opportunities to read and write high-frequency words in sentences during "Small Group" lessons. Explicit instruction in word analysis is provided with sample dialogue. Practice opportunities are varied and include both whole group and partner work.

Indicator 1k

Materials include systematic instruction of high-frequency words and opportunities to practice reading of high-frequency words to develop automaticity.
2/2
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the criteria for materials include systematic instruction of high-frequency words and practice opportunities of high-frequency words to develop automaticity.

The Pathways to Reading materials contain consistent and explicit instructions for introducing and teaching the words to students. Students are provided with high-frequency words to study over the course of the school year. Materials provide systematic instruction and opportunities for students to practice high-frequency words through "Read Word," and "Spelling" lesson activities to develop automaticity. High-frequency words are posted on the classroom door frame to provide practice of the words as students come and go from the classroom during the day.

Materials include systematic and explicit instruction of irregularly spelled words. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 154-155, the teacher shows a "Screech" word (a non-phonetic word) and analyzes the word for "cheater" parts with the students:
    • "These words are tricky because one of the sounds in the word isn’t spelled the way you would think it should be. Let’s see what I mean. This word is ‘said’."
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 55, The teacher states, “Your next word is a Screech word. These are words that have a sound not spelled the way you would expect. Your Screech word is find.”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 80, when discussing the words said, been, live, and some, the teacher discusses the number of sounds and the spelling of each word with students. “If it is a non-phonetic spelling ask: “How do we usually spell that sound? (R) “How is it spelled in this word?” (R) After students spell the words, the teacher is given the following instructions to use with students, “If it is a non-phonetic spelling say: “Color those letters with your yellow crayon.”’

Materials include frequent opportunities for the teacher to model the spelling and reading of irregularly spelled words in isolation. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 17, as part of the whole group lesson, the teacher is instructed to, “1. Echo read new spelling words and sentences. 2. Segment and spell words using PowerPoint and Lesson 1 Take Home page. 3. Tape “Screech” words to classroom door entry.” Sight words included in the week’s list are with, them, fish, ship, of, from, was, and want.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," pages 168-172, Lesson 12, Day 1 includes "Fry" words with -ed (opened, remembered, started, liked, timed), and "Fry" cheater words with -ed (answered, colored). “Screech is here. This week we’ll add -ed to the end of words to make them past tense. Past tense means that an action has already happened. It’s all over with. The -ed ending is wishy washy. It has several sounds.” Students analyze "Screech" words with the teacher. Students complete “Fill in My Screech Words.”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 248, the teacher models how to spell the words mountains and animals by using the word in a sentence, counting the number of syllables, identifying the “tricky” syllable such as the /tins/ or /tens/ in mountains and the /muls/ in animals. Students color the letters they need to remember using a yellow crayon. Students add the words to their “My Screech Words” list for the week.

Students practice identifying and reading irregularly spelled words in isolation. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 150, students practice using the onset and rime strategy to read a list of words from "SNAP and Map" high-frequency words lists.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 9, instructions are provided for the "On the Spot" routine. Students practice reading high-frequency words in isolation. “To aid in developing visual memory for the four non-phonetic words, the teacher plays ‘On the Spot’. The teacher laminates and cuts out two flash cards of the week’s cheater words and tapes them to the class doorway. Students may be asked ‘On the Spot’ to read or spell one of the words.”
  • In the Small Group Folder, as part of the lesson plans for Level 2, students read words from word lists or "SNAP" pools (high-frequency words) on Days 4, 5, and 6. Levels 3 and 4 students read words from word lists or "SNAP" pools on Days 1, 2, and 3.

Materials include a sufficient quantity of new grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words for students to make reading progress. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-5, the learning continuum includes targeted high-frequency words listed for each week ranging from the -ight family (Week 10) to contractions (Week 29). The high-frequency words are incorporated into whole group lessons and into more targeted small group instruction based on students’ assessment results.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab" pages 44-46, materials include "Sources for Single Word Reading" practice. "Word List 1," "Fry" high-frequency words 201-400 ("SNAP" words), are sorted into sound pools. The sound pools are: Pool 1-"Short vowels and Digraphs;" Pool 2-"Long Vowels;" Pool 3 "Buddy Vowels;" Pool 4 "-r vowels;" Pool 5-"Multisyllable" words; and "Non-Phonetic."
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 29, students study and are assessed on 140 sight words across Grade 2.

Indicator 1l

Materials provide frequent practice opportunities to read and write high-frequency words in context (sentences).
2/2
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the criteria for materials provide frequent practice opportunities to read and write high-frequency words in context (sentences).

Pathways to Reading Grade 2 materials provide students with frequent practice opportunities to read and write high-frequency words in sentences during "Small Group" lessons. Student reference materials such as "ABC" charts for students to record high-frequency words and words of personal interest are included. Word cards that the teacher can post by the doorway for students to practice are a part of the spelling routine.

Lessons provide students with frequent opportunities to read grade level irregularly spelled words in a sentence. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 154, students complete a "Paired Learning" activity with "SNAP and Map Screech Words." Students take turns quizzing each other on "Screech SNAP and Map Words."
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 187, students read sentence strips to determine what emotion the sentence conveys. The sentence strips contain high-frequency words.
  • In the "Screech and Me Student Book," Lesson 9, Day 4, the cheater words are would, you, should, and your. Students read the following paragraph. “I know you have a boy. Your boy can jump high. You should have your boy in a jumping contest. He would win! Would you ask him if he would be in the jumping contest? He should try it. The contest will be held south of town. I hope your boy will come!”

Lessons provide students with frequent opportunities to write grade-level, irregularly spelled words in tasks (such as sentences) in order to promote automaticity in writing grade-level irregularly spelled words. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the Spelling Manual, page 33, the teacher dictates the words in isolation: phonics objectives (with, cloth), visual memory (from, of), and transfer skills (crush, this) by using them in a sentence “I am with my mom,” or “The doll is made of wax.” Then, students write the words in sentences, for example, “I want to fish from the ship.”
  • In the "Spelling" Powerpoint, Lesson 11, Day 3, Slide 2, students take a spelling pretest. As part of the pretest, the teacher dictates the following sentences, “Where in the world are those birds?” and “Were you the first girl to start a trip to the North Pole?” The routine is followed on Day 3 throughout the spelling sequence.
  • In the Spelling Manual, page 325, students work independently to copy the sentences, and circle spelling words. Students add a sentence with an additional thought to one of the week’s sentences.

Materials provide repeated, explicit instruction in how to use student friendly reference materials and resources, and reading irregularly spelled words (e.g., word cards, word lists, word ladders, student dictionaries). For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 9, teachers are provided with instructions for using word cards to help students study their spelling words on a weekly basis. “To aid in developing visual memory for the four non-phonetic words the teacher plays ‘On the Spot’. S/he laminates and cuts out two flash cards of the week’s cheater words and tapes them to the class doorway. Students may be asked ‘On the Spot’ to read or spell one of the words.”

In the "Spelling Manual," page 257, students work with "Fry" words with the, "-y to -i add -es rule." The "My Word Families" reference sheet for Lesson 19 provides examples to remind students to change -y to -i and add -es.

  • In the "Screech and Me Student Book," each student’s spelling book contains an "ABC" chart where students write down "My Screech Words." The student book includes an "ABC" chart where students write down "My words for Me!"

Indicator 1m

Materials explicitly teach word analysis strategies (e.g., phoneme/grapheme recognition, syllabication, morpheme analysis) based on the requirements of the standards and provide students with frequent practice opportunities to apply word analysis strategies.
4/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the criteria for materials explicitly teach word analysis strategies (phoneme/grapheme recognition, syllabication, morpheme analysis) based on the requirements of the standards and provide frequent practice opportunities for students to apply word analysis strategies.

In Pathways to Reading, explicit instruction in word analysis is provided with sample dialogue. Practice opportunities are varied and include both whole group and partner work. Students have frequent opportunities to analyze word endings and syllables.

Materials contain frequent explicit instruction of word analysis strategies (phoneme/grapheme recognition, syllabication, morpheme analysis). For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 90-93, students are introduced to the “Wishy-Washy” strategy for -ed words as they change the sounds:
    • In this word lifted, the -ed is pronounced the way you would expect: /ed/ (page 91).
    • In the word hugged it sounds like /d/ (page 92).
    • “That’s why it’s Wishy-Washy!” (page 92).
    • Students identify if the ending sounds like /ed/, /t/, or /d/ in the "Read Words" lists (page 93).
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 230-232, students learn to analyze words with the -ture ending. The teacher leads students in analyzing the word capture. “T- This tricky ending is in the word capture. T: (Student name #1) how many syllables in the word capture? (R) Draw two syllable lines on the board. T: What’s the first syllable in capture? (R: /cap/).” The lesson continues with students spelling the first syllable and identifying and spelling the second syllable. Students also read and analyze words such as fracture, moisture, and denture.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," pages 376-377, there are explicit instructions for students to recognize prefixes: “If we place the prefix ‘mis’ in front of the word, it modifies its meaning. What does the word mean now? Correct or confirm. Mis means bad or wrong, badly, or wrongly. Let’s spell this week’s words: misspell, miscount (highlight o-u), misbehave, mislay, mismatch (recall -tch for /ch/ when its last and follows a one letter vowel), misprint, mistake, mistreat (highlight -e-a), misplace (highlight -c), and misunderstand."
  • In the "Spelling Manual," pages 386-388, students learn the sound spelling of the prefix pre-. The teacher lets students know they will learn an "instant syllable." “If we place the prefix pre- in front of the word it modifies its meaning. What does the word mean now?” Let’s spell this week’s words.” The teacher asks students the number of syllables from a given list of words, then students are asked what the syllables are, and then has the students read the word, syllable by syllable. The students then say what letters are needed to spell the syllables to complete the word.

Materials contain frequent explicit instruction of word solving strategies to decode unfamiliar words. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 69, students practice "Eyeball Vowel Bump," and "Circle and Read." The routine involves students "eyeballing" the number of vowel sounds to mentally break the word into syllables, read each syllable, and then read the word. The teacher is provided with words to use to practice this routine such as beside, repeat, bandit, and princess.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 94-96, students learn that the -le suffix attaches to the consonant before it. “The first tricky ending is in the word handle. (Student Name #1) how many syllables in the word handle?” The teacher is directed to draw two syllable lines on the board. “However, we said that every syllable must have a what? This syllable is tricky because we don’t hear a vowel, but we’re going to stick this -e at the end of the syllable so that it has a vowel in it. The -l and the -e stand for the /l/ sound.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab" pages 49-52, the “Student Assists” are described for teachers and categorized by: "Most Support," "Moderate Support," and "Least Support." For example, if a student pauses on a word, the teacher prompts as follows:
    • "Most Support:" Teacher prompts, “What’s the rime? What’s the onset? What’s the word? Is that a word you know?
    • "Moderate Support:" Teacher prompts, “What will you ask yourself first to help you figure out this word? (Student: The onset and rime). What do we do next? (Student: Blend the sounds.) What will we do last? (Ask if it’s a word we know.).
    • "Least Support:" Teacher prompts, “I saw you stop and figure out that word. What were you thinking? How did you do that?”

Multiple and varied opportunities are provided over the course of the year for students to learn, practice, and apply word analysis strategies. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 72, students learn about "Instant Syllable with Double Consonants." “When you see words with double consonants you can find the syllables instantly. You simply divide the word right between the two consonants. There’s a syllable on each side.” Students practice reading and identifying syllables in the following words: biggest, kitten, puppet, rabbit, and traffic.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 77, the teacher is provided with instructions for a "Sort the Ending" activity for students to practice instant syllables. “Give partners sets of all Instant Syllable strategies learned to date. Mix them up. Tell the partners to find ways to sort the words into Instant Syllable sets. Once the words are sorted each student reads each list of words to the other. Each must agree with the other before moving on. Teacher rotates from group to group assessing and assisting.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 103, students practice and apply their word analysis strategies for tricky endings (suffixes) -le, -tion, -ture, and - tion:
    • "Spot the Suffix." Partners take turns flashing cards with words and students identifying the suffix.
    • "Say the ending." Say the word. Students identify endings and words while a partner “agrees” or “disagrees” with the pronunciation. The partner can say “spelling challenge” to have the student spell the entire word.
    • "Sort the Tricky Suffix." Partners sort words by their various endings.

Criterion 1o - 1q

Materials and instruction support students in learning and practicing regularly and irregularly spelled high-frequency words.
6/12
+
-
Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Grade 2 materials provide limited instructional opportunities for explicit instruction with fluency through small group lessons. Explicit instruction in rate is not evident in the materials. Opportunities for students to progress in oral reading fluency over the course of the school year lack in variety, frequency, and fluency feedback.

Materials partially meet the criteria for materials provide teacher guidance to support students as they confirm or self-correct errors, and emphasize reading for purpose and understanding. On-level texts included with the program are limited to weekly spelling paragraphs. While grade-level books are referenced in the materials, the books are not included in the program.

Indicator 1o

Instructional opportunities are built into the materials for systematic, evidence-based, explicit instruction in fluency. (Grades 1-2)
2/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet the criteria for instructional opportunities are built into the materials for systematic, evidence-based, explicit instruction in fluency (Grades 1-2).

The Pathways to Reading materials provide limited instructional opportunities for explicit instruction with fluency through small group lessons. The resources provided for explicit instruction in fluency consist of sentence strips in small group reading lessons and sentences and paragraphs in Pathways to Spelling materials. Materials do provide students with opportunities to engage in systematic "Read in Context" activities during "Small Group" instruction and Pathways to Spelling lessons that focus on accuracy, phrasing, prosody, punctuation, and emotions through activities such as choral reading, echo reading, and "Reading Club" activities.

Materials include some opportunities for explicit, systematic instruction in fluency elements using grade-level text. Instruction in rate is missing. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 178, the teacher is to tell the students, “I’d like to think about phrasing on this last page of the story.” The students are to read the sentence to themselves and then to their classmate. In the "Reading Club," the students mark phrases with paper clips, and read the sentence to a partner to decide if it sounds right.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 282, the directions state: “Model reading with expression.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 188, the teacher states, “We have talked about how these punctuation marks help with meaning and that when we read, our voice does something to help show that meaning.” The teacher is to show the different punctuation marks and ask students to be teacher, and explain what they can about each.

Materials provide opportunities for students to hear fluent reading of grade-level text by a model reader. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 174, the teacher is instructed to have a student read a sentence and then, “After the student figures out the words. Re-read with phrasing.” However, decodable books are not included with the program.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 192, on Day 4 of the weekly spelling routine, the teacher models reading the weekly paragraph. The teacher is instructed to, “Read each sentence with phrasing and expression. Students echo read.”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," pages 266-267, the teacher refers to the student "Screech and Me Student Book" lesson. The teacher will “Read each sentence with phrasing and expression. Students echo read. Read and image the paragraph.”

Materials include some resources for explicit instruction in fluency. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 161, the "Read in Context" lessons are listed. There are a total of six lessons provided. Lessons use sentence strips or decodables (not provided).
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 161, the "Read in Context" lessons include three explicit lessons for: phrasing, prosody using punctuation marks, and prosody using emotions. These lessons are repeated throughout the year while the student engages with decodable texts and sentence strips.

Indicator 1p

Varied and frequent opportunities are built into the materials for students to engage in supported practice to gain oral reading fluency beginning in mid-Grade 1 and through Grade 2 (once accuracy is secure). (not scored for K and early Grade 1)
2/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet the criteria for varied and frequent opportunities are built into the materials for students to engage in supported practice to gain oral reading fluency beginning in mid-Grade 1 and through Grade 2 (once accuracy is secure).

The Pathways to Reading materials provide opportunities to engage in supported practice to gain oral reading fluency through small group lessons, "Reading Club," and Pathways to Spelling lessons. However, opportunities for students to progress in oral reading fluency over the course of the school year lack in variety, frequency, and fluency feedback. Each week during spelling instruction, students have the opportunity to echo read the week’s paragraph and the week’s spelling sentences.

Opportunities are provided over the course of the year in core materials for students to gain oral reading fluency. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 178, students complete a lesson on phrasing practice. Students work on phrasing, “1. Call on students to ‘be the teacher’ and read a page to the group. 2. Re-read each sentence on a page. Read in phrases and without phrasing. Have students tell if phrasing is being used. How do they know? 3. Re-read sentences with phrasing. Students echo read. 4. Have a student re-tell what has happened in the story so far at the end of each page. 5. For each page ask if anyone has a sticky note and an image he wants to share.” This lesson uses a book that is not included with the program. The teacher is directed under the "Materials" section of the lesson to “Choose a decodable book using the placement guide.”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 10, on Day 2 of each week the teacher is instructed to complete the following routine with students, “Teacher following the teacher’s manual and using the PowerPoint, has students ‘echo’ read the two sentences for the week. The teacher reads the sentence phrase by phrase with expression. The group ‘echoes’ each phrase after it is read.”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," pages 164-165, students read and image the paragraph in their "Screech and Me Student Book." Students re-read the paragraph independently, or to a partner.
  • In the "Small Group Folder," page 8, the "First UP - Materials and Start Up" lesson outlines the "Reading Plan" for small group instruction Levels 2 & 3 (Days 4-6), and Level 4 (Days 1-3):
    • "Cold Read"-focus = Accuracy: transfer decoding skills, light questioning of vocabulary and story line; teacher responds to student errors and questions images for key vocabulary.
    • "Reread"-focus = Meaning and Phrasing: How does the meaning influence the phrasing. Discuss imagery, emotions, predictions, inferences, summarize. What does the book lend itself to?
    • "Final Read"-focus = Application: students pair up and read to each other in paired learning. 1) Students stop each other and ask questions; 2) If needed they help to correct each other; 3) Students prepare to read with the teacher. Teacher listens to a student read aloud a portion of the book/passage. Teacher responds to errors and assists as needed.

Materials contain some opportunities for students to participate in repeated readings of a grade-level text to practice oral reading fluency. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 178, students echo read in phrases, and determine phrases.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 87, on Day 4 of the weekly spelling routine students practice echo reading the week’s paragraph. For example, in this lesson the teacher is told, “1) Read each sentence. Students echo read (repeat after teacher.) Discuss quotation marks and how to use the voice to sound like the characters talking. 2) Students read and image the paragraph a few sentences at a time.”

Materials include some guidance and feedback suggestions to the teacher for supporting students’ gains in oral reading fluency. For example, the following items are noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 181, the teacher is instructed to use the observation form and “Across from student’s name write next to ‘What Read’: page 4. Write any words decoded incorrectly in the middle. Circle fluency and expression at the bottom.” However, follow-up instructions on these notes are not provided.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 181, during "Read in Context" Lesson 3 the teacher is advised, “In all instances assist with decoding errors as needed using ‘Read Words’ from Flip and Assist.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 183-186, during the "Read in Context" lesson on prosody practice, the teacher is advised when reading a sentence with an exclamation to, “Help students notice that the voice got louder for the word NOT in capitals and that the end of the sentence was said harder.”

Indicator 1q

Materials provide teacher guidance to support students as they confirm or self-correct errors (Grades 1-2) and emphasize reading for purpose and understanding.
2/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet the criteria for materials provide teacher guidance to support students as they confirm or self-correct errors and emphasize reading for purpose and understanding.

In Pathways to Reading, the "Small Group Manual," the "Flip and Assist Manual," and Pathways to Spelling lessons provide the teacher with guidance concerning how to assist students with confirming reading or self-correcting errors. Imagery is a consistent focus of reading for understanding. Materials include detailed think alouds to use when discussing imagery. On-level texts included with the program are limited to weekly spelling paragraphs. While grade-level books are referenced in the materials, the books are not included in the program.

Materials provide explicit lessons for the teacher in confirming and self-correcting errors in fluency. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 173, as the teacher has a student read the title of a book they are directed to, “See Flip and Assist: Read Words for prompts and responses to errors. If the student pauses on the first word say: What’s the vowel sound? Blend those sounds together and tell us the word.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 234, students learn how to “make the leap” when reading words. The teacher states, “Sometimes we read a word the way it looks like it should be read, but it doesn’t sound quite right. That’s because some words aren’t said the way they look. When we read we should always expect a word to sound right and make sense. If it doesn’t we may need to search in our minds for a word that it might be. You can think of this as making the leap to a read word.”

Materials provide opportunities for students to practice using confirmation or self-correction of errors. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 154-155, students practice analyzing "Cheater" parts to read words with the correct punctuation. During paired practice, the student attempts to read a "Screech" word. The student can use the mapping question to self-correct the word.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 235, students practice “Making the Leap.” “This word isn’t read the way it looks. How did you figure it out or how did you know the word? What went through your mind?” The steps in “Making the Leap” are to, “1. Read the word the way it looks. 2. Do a mental search to “make the leap” to the correct pronunciation. 3. Read the sentence with the word. 4. Ask the teacher, an adult or a friend, or check the dictionary.” The teacher is provided with numerous words to have students practice with, including again, answer, mountain, and country.

Some opportunities are provided over the course of the year for students to read on-level texts (Grades 1-2) for purpose and understanding:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 171, the teacher is provided with a list of comprehension and reflection activities that students could complete during reading club:
    • Partners read their favorite section of a story to each other and share why it's a favorite part. They paper clip the section.
    • Students reread a sentence strip to a partner, or alone. They write and draw what could happen next.
    • Partners read a selection and tell each other what they liked or disliked about it.
    • Students read to finish a story that was started in small group. They write or draw a summary.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 74, each week on Day 4 of the spelling routine, students have the opportunity to read a paragraph that contains the week’s "Cheater" words. As part of the activity each week, “Students read and image the paragraph a few sentences at a time.” For example, “T: Let’s read the next sentence: “Their toys are over there by the swings, but where are they?” What does that add to your image? (Assist another student to add to the image.).”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 87, in Lesson 5, Day 4 the teacher uses the paragraph to read and have students image the paragraph. As students use imagery for understanding the sentences, the teacher asks questions such as, “What does that add to your image? Does that add to your image or change it?” The teacher helps the students summarize the paragraph, “This is about men helping to clean up a street in their neighborhood so kids can play in it.”

Materials contain explicit directions and/or think-alouds for the teacher to model how to engage with a text to emphasize reading for purpose and understanding. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 31, after the teacher reads the sentences “This hat is from the ship in the bay. It is made of red cloth.” The teacher models using imagery. “In my mind I see a hat that is bright red. It is a tall hat, like you see in pictures of Abraham Lincoln. A man is standing by the water, holding the hat in one hand and pointing to a ship that he can see out in the water with the other hand. Can you see my image in your mind?”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 44, the teacher models using imagery with the following sentence, “Which whips will the small man check?” The teacher is provided with the following think aloud to use, “I have seen whips in a barn where people work with horses. They are long skinny sticks with a piece of rope tied at the end. People hold the stick end of the whip and it looks a little like they’re holding a fishing pole. Because the word is ‘whips’ with an -s on the end I know that means more than one whip. So I’m imagining a lot of whips leaning against a wall in a barn. Some are short whips. Some are tall. The handles are different colors. Some are black, some brown, some yellow.”
  • In the Spelling Manual, page 83, the teacher models how to use sensory imagery to help understand the words. There is an assisting imagery poster in the "Reproducibles," and on the PowerPoint for the day:
    • "Student should have two men. Describe what they look like.
    • What does it look like to 'live on this street?' The men may be on a sidewalk pointing at houses along the street. The men may be riding in a car and pointing to a street sign, etc.
    • What is the movement in the picture?
    • What is the background?"

Gateway Two

Implementation, Support Materials & Assessment

Partially Meets Expectations

+
-
Gateway Two Details

The Grade 2 Pathways to Reading program spans 36 weeks and content provided can reasonably be completed in a year based on the "Quarterly Literacy Plan" provided. Although recommended scripting is provided within lessons, specific times are not suggested for individual activities. Additionally, at times, components of the program are difficult to navigate and may need additional guidance. The "Teacher Preparation" section of the "Large Group Manual" provides an explanation of the scope and sequence for phonics. Teachers are provided with research-based explanations for the phonics sequence in Grade 2. The Pathways to Spelling routine allows students the opportunity to read a paragraph containing targeted phonics patterns; however, this reading is only completed one day a week. Decodable texts outside of the spelling paragraph are not included with the program. Grade 2 materials include sentence strips with phonics aligned to the program's scope and sequence that are utilized during small group lessons. While the sentence strips contain high-frequency words, the sentence strips are not connected text. All decodable texts referenced in the materials are available as an additional purchase. While materials provide assessment opportunities over the course of the school year to measure students’ mastery of phonics, teacher guidance provides general questions and directs the teacher to use the "Small Group" manuals. Assessments in the areas of nonsense word reading and sight words are administered on a quarterly basis. Limited assessments for fluency are not provided in Pathways to Reading. The teacher is directed to use district fluency assessments and are given a list of suggested fluency resources.

Materials meet the criteria for materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards; however, there is no reference to English Language Learners in the Pathways to Reading materials.

Although the visual design of the website and teachers manuals is easy to read, there are multiple teacher manuals utilized for lessons.

Criterion 2a - 2e

Materials are accompanied by a systematic, explicit, and research-based scope and sequence outlining the essential knowledge and skills that are taught in the program and the order in which they are presented. Scope and sequence should include phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, fluency, and print concepts.
14/16
+
-
Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Grade 2 meet the criteria for materials contain a teacher edition with ample and useful annotations and suggestions on how to present the content in the student materials. Materials contain full, adult-level explanations and examples of the foundational skills concepts included in the program so teachers can improve their own knowledge of the subject, as necessary. Accompanying online video tutorials are located on the Pathways to Reading website. The Grade 2 Pathways to Reading program spans 36 weeks and content provided can reasonably be completed in a year based on the "Quarterly Literacy Plan" provided. Although recommended scripting is provided within lessons, specific times are not suggested for individual activities. Additionally, at times, components of the program are difficult to navigate and may need additional guidance. The "Teacher Preparation" section of the "Large Group Manual" provides an explanation of the scope and sequence for phonics. Teachers are provided with research-based explanations for the phonics sequence in Grade 2. Materials partially meet the criteria for materials contain strategies for informing all stakeholders, including students, parents, or caregivers about the ELA/literacy program and suggestions for how they can help support student progress and achievement.

Indicator 2a

Materials contain a teacher edition with ample and useful annotations and suggestions on how to present the content in the student materials. Where applicable, materials include teacher guidance for the use of embedded technology to support and enhance student learning.
4/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 Pathways to Reading meet the criteria for materials contain a teacher edition with ample and useful annotations and suggestions on how to present the content in the student materials. Where applicable, materials include teacher guidance for the use of embedded technology to support and enhance student learning.

Pathways to Reading, Second Grade manuals provide detailed lessons regarding how to present the content to students. Materials are provided for whole group lessons in the "Large Group Manual." The "Small Group Manual" is used in conjunction with the "Second Grade Small Group Folder" for documenting data for small group lessons. The "Flip and Assist Manual" supports the "Small Group Manual" providing strategies along with possible student responses for help with remediation. "Reproducibles" are provided for whole and small group activities. There is the continuation in Grade 2 from the Grade 1 instructional sequence with the Pathways to Spelling Manual. Sample lessons are provided through video clips that provide support and a modeling tool for the teacher. However, while consistent routines and activities are used throughout the year, the layout of the "Second Grade Large Group Teacher Manual" often necessitates flipping back and forth through pages during a daily lesson to find the lessons that correspond with each day.

Materials provide a well-defined, teacher resource (e.g., teacher edition, manual) for content presentation. For example, the following is noted:

  • There are multiple teacher manuals which include the following:
    • "Second Grade Large Group."
    • "Second Grade Small Group."
    • "Second Grade Small Group Folder."
    • "Second Grade Assessments."
    • "Flip & Assist (Grade 1 and Above)."
    • "Advanced Oral PA Development (Grade 1 and Above)."
    • "Second Grade Pathways to Spelling."
    • "Second Grade Reproducibles."
    • "Online Video Library for Teachers."
  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-4, teachers are provided with "Quarterly Literacy Plans." Lessons throughout the manual are broken down into weeks and days.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 71, teachers are provided with a chart that lists the multisyllable lessons for each day. Days 1 and 2 list “MS decoding practice” but no corresponding pages are listed. The rest of the days reference page numbers: Day 3, “MS Lesson 5 pages 72-73,” Day 4, “MS decoding practice pages 76-79,” and Day 5, “MS Lesson 5 pages 74-76.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 1, the materials explain the teacher should begin the small group instruction as determined in the "Small Group Folder." The "Small Group Folder" contains note-taking sheets, lesson plan materials, masters for the four levels of small groups, and mouth pictures with questions.

The teacher resource contains detailed information and instructional routines that help the teacher to effectively implement all foundational skills content (i.e., phonics, irregularly spelled words, word analysis, fluency). For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 55, “Vowel practice is a 10 minute daily routine. Discontinue vowel practice when students have mastered Spot the Vowel.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 76, a routine for multisyllable word practice is provided:
    • "1. Review multisyllable strategies a couple of minutes each day. Find several decodable multisyllable words, double consonant words, and words with the -ing ending from the Think Aloud or Shared Reading materials. Write these words on the board.
    • 2. Think aloud to decode one from each category. Then call on a student to read the word. Ask the student to identify the 'Instant Syllable' then read the word.
    • 3. Use 'Flip and Assist' to respond to errors. Have the class close their eyes and visualize the -ing syllable. Have them 'shadow write' it in the air.
    • 4. See game activities next page."
  • In the "Small Group Manual," Lesson 1 for "Word Reading Strategies," pages 147-149, there are step-by-step strategies including teacher prompts to help students with high-frequency words:
    • "ID the vowel sound.
    • Blend the vowel to the end (introduce the term 'rime').
    • Start Again (introduce the term 'onset').
    • Identify the word.
    • 'Map' (spell) the portion of the word requested.
    • Read the phrase or short sentence."

Any technology pieces included provide support and guidance for the teacher and do not create an additional layer of complication around the materials. For example, the following is noted:

  • Videos are provided on the Pathways to Reading website for teacher use. Topics addressed in the videos include fluency, and phonemic awareness. Videos provide demonstrations of a teacher working with students on the strategies taught in Pathways to Reading. For example, the following is noted:
    • In the "Small Group Manual," page 113, the teacher is referred to the "Video Library," Set #10-c/e, i, y.
    • In the video, “Segment and Write End Practice: Modeled with Second Graders” (6 minutes and 19 seconds) a teacher works with students to write words on their white boards. The teacher leads students in a discussion about the vowel sound and other ways the vowel sound could be spelled. Students practice segmenting the sounds in the words they write.
    • "Consonant Articulation Practice" videos for teachers are provided on the Pathways to Reading website.

Indicator 2b

Materials contain full, adult-level explanations and examples of the foundational skills concepts included in the program so teachers can improve their own knowledge of the subject, as necessary.
4/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the criteria for materials contain full, adult-level explanations and examples of the foundational skills concepts included in the program so teachers can improve their own knowledge of the subject, as necessary.

Lessons throughout the Grade 2 Pathways to Reading manuals contain explanations and examples of foundational skills being taught such as detailed annotations of the speech concepts. The "Second Grade Large Group Manual" contains a "Teacher Preparation" section that provides adult-level explanations of foundational skills concepts such as phonics and high-frequency words. The "Flip and Assist Manual," provides explanations and examples of foundational skills. Accompanying online video tutorials are located on the Pathways to Reading website.

Complete, detailed adult-level explanations are provided for each foundational skill taught at the grade level. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 1, plosive is described: “The air is stopped briefly by lips or tongue then released in an explosion of air. /p/ as in pie.” Fricative is described: “The air is forced to squeeze through a narrow opening formed by the teeth, lips or tongue. The air flows rather than explodes. For example. /s/ as in sun.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab" page 24, "Vowel Town Basics" are explained:
    • There are four categories related to mouth shape:
      • "Smile"=shape sounds.
      • "Open"=mouth shape sound.
      • "Circle"=mouth shape sounds.
      • "Movement"=from one shape to another.
    • The concept of "Hills" relates to tongue and chin movement.
    • The concept of "Taxis" relates to the movement from one mouth shape to another.
    • The "Apartment Building" is a mnemonic for remembering the -r controlled vowels.
  • In the "Pathways to Spelling Manual," page 3, "Phonemic Awareness" is defined and described: “The ability to notice the small units of sound that make up the spoken word. The phonemes in fog are /f/, /o/, /g/ (letters inside slanted lines represent sounds). Ability to notice these sounds enables the student to segment words into individual sounds in order to spell, blend sounds into words for reading, and manipulate sounds within words to self-correct spelling and reading errors.”

Detailed examples of the grade level foundational skill concepts are provided for the teacher. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 114, when learning about irregularly spelled words, the teacher is advised that, “Some words are so irregular that it is best to simply tell the student how the word is pronounced. Help the student form associations for the irregular part of the word by writing several other words that are similar when possible.” The teacher is provided with the following examples of irregularly spelled words: enough, idea, machine, neighbor, radio, tonight, and weighing.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 24, there are examples for "Practice Pronouncing the Sounds:"
    • ‘Taxi’ sounds:
      • /ie/ (eye) Open to smile.
      • /ue/ (you) Smile to circle.
      • /ow/ (ouch) Open to circle.
      • /oy/ (boy) Circle to smile.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 26, the scope of syllable structure for segmenting up to five phonemes is provided. Explanations for each structure include examples of simple syllables (e.g., v: I, eye; CVC: cat, thing), and complex syllables (e.g., VCC: act; CCVCC: brand).

Indicator 2c

Foundational skills lessons are well-designed and take into account effective lesson structure and pacing. Content can reasonably be completed within a regular school year, and the pacing allows for maximum student understanding.
2/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet the criteria for foundational skills lessons are well-designed and take into account effective lesson structure and pacing. Content can reasonably be completed within a regular school year, and the pacing allows for maximum student understanding.

The Grade 2 Pathways to Reading program spans 36 weeks. The Pathways to Reading content provided can reasonably be completed in a year based on the "Quarterly Literacy Plan" provided. Instructions for breaking up the daily literacy block are provided for teachers. Lesson plan design utilizes teacher modeling and consistent instructional routines and activities. Grade 2 materials follow a continuum for phonemic awareness and phonics which includes short vowel sounds, basic consonants, consonant digraphs, long vowels, alternate spellings, vowel pairs, inflectional endings, prefixes and suffixes. Segmenting and blending follow the sequence of CVC, CCVC, CVCC, CCVCC with two and three syllable word manipulations. Recommended times are provided for whole group, small groups, and supporting activities within the 2.5 hour literacy block. Although recommended scripting is provided within lessons, specific times are not suggested for individual activities. Additionally, due to many program components, the materials can be hard to navigate and need additional guidance.

Lesson plans utilize effective, research-based lesson plan design for early literacy instruction. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 42, work by researcher Linnea Ehri is cited, “Words in a text that carry the most meaning can be correctly identified by context only 10% of the time. The contribution of context is not to identify words, but to confirm that the fully decoded word fits into the structure of the sentence.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 43, "Fluency: Bridge Between Decoding and Reading Comprehension" by Pikulski and Chard is referenced. “PTR assists students in this phase of word reading by offering scaffolded questions based on the type of decoding error made by a student.”
  • On the Pathways to Reading Website, pathwaystoreading.com, "Research Tab," teachers are informed, “PTR is grounded/focused in/on the five components of the reading process identified through the research of the National Reading Panel and the National Reading Council: Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, Comprehension.”

The effective lesson design structure includes both whole group and small group instruction. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-5, a "Division of Instructional Time" is provided. "Large Group PTR" instruction is segmented into 5-10 minutes of decoding strategies, 3-4 times a week, and 15-30 minutes for spelling word study. Sixty minutes is dedicated to small group time.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 5, the Introduction provides the following guidance: “Groups 1-3 receive 4 days of instruction for a total of 80 minutes. Group 4 (students with higher reading scores) receives 3 days of instruction (60 minutes).”

The pacing of each component of daily lessons plans is clear and appropriate. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 1, the program advises that literacy instruction should take 2.5 hours a day.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-5, teachers are provided guidance concerning how long literacy instruction should take each quarter. For example, the following chart is provided for teachers for Quarter Three:
    • "PTR Large Group: 15-20 minutes 'Spelling' word study daily
    • Small Group (or conferencing): (Total 60 mins. May be a combination of small group and one-on-one conferencing if doing a reader’s workshop format):
      • Non PTR Small Group: 20 minutes PTR group daily (Members of the group may have moved on to join other groups).
      • PTR Small Group: 40 minutes (2 additional 20 minute groups or conferencing).
    • Comprehension "Large Group Think Aloud & Modeling:" 20 minutes daily.
    • Writing: 30-40 minutes daily."

The suggested amount of time and expectations for maximum student understanding of all foundational skill content (i.e., phonics, irregularly spelled words, word analysis, fluency) can reasonably be completed in one school year and should not require modifications. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-5, the "Quarterly Literacy Plans" state the program is outlined to take 36 weeks to complete.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-5, "Multisyllabic" word lessons end Week 34. Assessments are given Weeks 35 and 36.

Indicator 2d

Order of Skills
0/0

Indicator 2d.ii

Scope and sequence clearly delineate an intentional sequence in which phonics skills are to be taught, with a clear explanation for the order of the sequence.
4/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 2 meet the criteria for scope and sequence clearly delineate an intentional sequence in which phonics skills are to be taught, with a clear explanation for the order of the sequence.

The "Teacher Preparation" section of the "Large Group Manual" provides an explanation of the scope and sequence for phonics. Teachers are provided with research-based explanations for the phonics sequence in Grade 2. Materials provide a list of all phonics guides (rules) that will be addressed over the course of the school year. While there are some low utility patterns that are taught, the majority of phonics rules that are taught are of high utility. The "Teacher Preparation" pages explain and provide examples of all phonics rules that will be taught during the sequence.

Materials clearly delineate a scope and sequence with a cohesive, intentional sequence of phonics instruction and practice to build toward application of skills. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab" page 31, the materials provide a chart with the "Scope and Sequence" of sounds and phonics guides taught in Grade 2. Phonics skills are taught by pools such as the following examples:
    • "Pool 1: Consonants pb, td, ckg, fv, th, s, z, sh, ch, m, n, l, r, ng. Vowels a, e, i, o, u, and Guides choice of c or k, -ck at the end.
    • Pool 2: Consonants w, h, wh, qu, x, y. Vowels ae, ee, ie, oe, ue. Guides -e to end, 2 e’s stick together.
    • Pool 3: Vowels oi/oy, ou/ow, au/aw, oo/oo. Guides c/e, i, y.
    • Pool 4: Vowels oi/oy, ou/ow, au/aw, oo/oo. Guides g/e, i, y, -ge.
    • Pool 5: Vowels ai/ay, ea, oa. Optional Guides -dge,-tch."
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab" page 65, materials provide the "Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Continuum." The phonics sequence listed for Grade 2 is a follows: short vowels (a, e, i, o, u), basic consonants (b, c, d, f, g, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, y, z), consonant digraphs (th, sh, ch, wh, -ng), long vowels (a_e, ee, i_e, o_e, u_e), alternate spellings (-ck, qu, x, y, -ge, g/e, i, y, c/e, i, y, -tch, -dge), long vowel pairs (ai, ay, oa, ea), buddy vowels (ou/ow, oi/oy, aw/aw, oo/oo), -r vowels (ar, er, ir, or, ur), inflectional endings (s/es, -ed, -ing), prefixes (re, in, dis, pre, per), and suffixes (-y ,-ly, -er, -le, -tion, -ture).

Materials have a clear research-based explanation for the order of the phonics sequence. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab" page 42, teachers are provided with information about the processes that support the development of decoding skills. One piece that is cited on this page states the following:
    • "A large group of students studied from first to fifth grade revealed the following: The ability to figure out new words is a crucial step to developing a 'sight vocabulary.' Students who lack phonemic awareness 'talent' have trouble learning letter/sound relationships, have trouble sounding out words and have trouble 'in the formation of accurate memory for the spelling patterns that are the basis of sight word recognition' (Ehri, in press; Share & Stanovich, 1995 from Torgeson, Catch Them Before They Fall, American Educator, Spring/Summer 1998.)."
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 42, the publisher states, “A skilled reader is able to read familiar words accurately and quickly because all of the letters have been secured in memory. In contrast, a weak reader reads words less accurately and more slowly and may even misread similarly spelled words such as short, shirt and sheet because only some of the letters are connected to phonemes in memory. Words remain poorly connected when readers habitually guess words from partial letters and contextual cues without analyzing how all of the letters in spellings that match up to phonemes in pronunciations.”

Phonics instruction is based in high utility patterns and/or common phonics generalizations. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab" pages 27-30, the scope of phonics guides (rules) are provided. Guides include: #1-3 /k/, /j/, or /ch/ at the end of a word, #4 & #5 long vowels -e and "Two Vowels Go Walking," #6 & #7 c and g similarities, #8 & #9 the choice of c or k, /j/ -ge, and # 10 & # 11 copycat letters qu, x, and y.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab" pages 27-30, some of the phonics patterns taught are of high utility while others are not. High utility patterns taught include the following:
    • #1 When the sound /k/ is at the end of a word right after a one-letter vowel the "Defender c" is added before the k.
    • #2 When the sound /j/ is at the end of a word right after a one-letter vowel "Defender d" is added.
    • #3 When the sound /ch/ is at the end of a word right after a one-letter vowel "Defender t" is added.
    • #6 When c is followed by an -e, -i, or -y it always has the /s/ sound.
  • Low utility patterns are also included in instruction. For example, the following is noted:
    • #5 When "Two Vowels Go Walking" (and are not found together in "Vowel Town") the first one does the talking. What does it say? Its name. Subset: /ae/ sound at the end of a word is spelled ay.

Patterns and generalizations are carefully selected to provide a meaningful and manageable number of phonics patterns and common generalizations for students to learn deeply. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 2, the "Quarterly Literacy Plan" for Quarter 1 lists two vowel lessons and vowel practice, consonants or guides (rules) include digraphs th, sh, ch, wh, endings ck, ng, e to the end, ay, ow, and c or k which are either introduced or practiced weekly.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 27, the teacher instructions include, “Become familiar with each guide and the language used to discuss it in order to carry out the student lessons and to correct student errors.”

Indicator 2e

Materials contain strategies for informing all stakeholders, including students, parents, or caregivers about the Foundational Skills program and suggestions for how they can help support student progress and achievement.
0/0
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 Pathways to Reading partially meet the criteria for materials contain strategies for informing all stakeholders, including students, parents, or caregivers about the ELA/literacy program and suggestions for how they can help support student progress and achievement.

Grade 2 materials provide school administrators with access to videos of model lessons on the website. Resources for informing parents about foundational skills being taught are limited. In the take home lessons in Pathways to Spelling, Appendix B, a reference is made to every syllable needing a vowel, but detailed explanations for parents about all foundational skills are lacking. There are 25 take-home spelling lessons which provide explicit instructions for parents to help their children study spelling words. The spelling support for caregivers includes weekly spelling take-home lessons with the week’s target words and sentences, as well as instructions and strategies for how to support the student practice reading, spelling, and checking their words. Explanations within the spelling lessons are not provided for vowel spelling patterns or sounds that may be included on the list. A letter for introducing these spelling lessons to parents is not provided. The teacher’s manuals do not include letters home or other communication resources for parents.

Materials that contain jargon-free resources and processes to inform all stakeholders about foundational skills taught at school are not evident.

  • A parent letter home is not included with the materials; however, Appendix B, Pathways to Spelling contains resources for parents to help their child at home.

Materials provide stakeholders with minimal strategies and activities for practicing phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, fluency, and print concepts that will support students in progress towards and achievement of grade-level foundational skills standards:

  • In Pathways to Spelling, Appendix B, pages 1-30, the materials include take-home spelling lessons for parents to use at home with their child to practice spelling words. Lessons are clear and explicit.
  • In Pathways to Spelling, Appendix B, Lesson 6, the focus of the week’s spelling words is ai, ea and ay vowel patterns. The parent is provided with explicit instructions for helping their child study, “1. Ask me to read each word in the list. Read list from top to bottom or bottom to top. Tell me how to read any words that I miss. Letter/s colored yellow are tricky spellings I need to learn.” The lesson continues with the student spelling each word. Opportunities are missed to explain vowel patterns to parents.
  • In Pathways to Spelling, Appendix B, Lesson 23, the materials direct parents to prompt students to read the weekly compound words and spell them syllable-by-syllable.
  • In Pathways to Spelling, Appendix B, Lesson 26, the week’s words focus on the prefix re-. Parents are provided instructions for helping their child practice their spelling words. Part of the parent instructions for this lesson include, “2. Have me spell each word for you. Each syllable in a word is written on a syllable line. For example: un der. Every syllable must have a vowel.”
  • The website provides school administrators with a, “video tour of some clips used to assist with learning the 'PTR Strategies.'” These include modeled lessons.

Criterion 2f - 2f.ii

Program includes work with decodables in K and Grade 1, and as needed in Grade 2, following the grade-level scope and sequence to address both securing phonics.
4/8
+
-
Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Grade 2 partially meets the criteria for materials include decodable texts with phonics aligned to the program’s scope and sequence. The Pathways to Spelling routine allows students the opportunity to read a paragraph containing targeted phonics patterns; however, this reading is only completed one day a week. Decodable texts outside of the spelling paragraph are not included with the program.

Materials partially meet the criteria for materials include decodable texts with high frequency words aligned to the program’s scope and sequence. Grade 2 materials include sentence strips with phonics aligned to the program's scope and sequence that are utilized during small group lessons. While the sentence strips contain high-frequency words, the sentence strips are not connected text. All decodable texts referenced in the materials are available as an additional purchase.

Indicator 2f

Aligned Decodable Texts
0/0

Indicator 2f.i

Materials include decodable texts with phonics aligned to the program’s scope and sequence and opportunities for students to use decodables for multiple readings.
2/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet the criteria for materials include decodable texts with phonics aligned to the program’s scope and sequence.

The Pathways to Spelling routine allows students the opportunity to read a paragraph containing targeted phonics patterns; however, this reading is only completed one day a week. Decodable texts outside of the spelling paragraph are not included with the program. Although other decodable readers are referenced in "Read in Context" small group lessons, the books are not provided in the materials.

Materials include decodable texts to address securing phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 12, each week on Day 4 students read a paragraph that contains the week’s "Cheater" words. Students color the "cheater" words in yellow. The paragraph contains decodable words such as: small, plan, big, fish, splash.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 99, students use the "Screech and Me Student Book" which contains a paragraph about keeping the earth clean. The teacher reads the passage, and students echo read. Students re-read the paragraph independently, or with a partner. Students draw an image and write a summary. The paragraph includes the phonics rule ea.
  • In the "Small Group Folder," pages 2-4, the "Placement Guide" includes the titles of recommended decodable texts that align to the phonics focus for each set of lessons. However, the texts are not included in the materials.

Decodable texts contain grade-level phonics skills aligned to the program’s scope and sequence. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Folder," pages 1-4, in the "Grade Placement Guide," books are referenced to be used in conjunction with the program’s scope and sequence phonics guides addressed in "Segment and Write," "Old Word/New Word," and "Read Words." However, the books are available from outside vendors and not included in the materials.
  • In the "Screech and Me Student Book," Lesson 6, Day 4, students read a paragraph that contains the week’s high-frequency words. This week’s spelling focus is ai, ea, and ay words. Example sentences from the paragraph include, “Learn to keep the earth clean,” and “Have you heard that the sea is not clean?”

Materials include detailed lesson plans for repeated readings of decodable texts to address securing phonics skills. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 140, students complete the weekly paragraph reading. The teacher is instructed to, “1) Read each sentence with phrasing and expression. Students echo read. 2) Read and image the paragraph.” During independent work time, students color the "cheater" words yellow in the paragraph.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," pages 152-153, students use a paragraph to practice the words are, two, school, move, and, who. The teacher reads the paragraph with phrasing and expression. Students then echo read. Students read the paragraph independently. Then, students imagine and summarize the paragraph.

Indicator 2f.ii

Materials include decodable texts with high-frequency words aligned to the program’s scope and sequence and opportunities for students to use decodables for multiple readings.
2/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet the criteria for materials include decodable texts with high frequency words aligned to the program’s scope and sequence.

In Pathways to Reading, the paragraphs students read each week during spelling instruction contain "Cheater" words (irregularly spelled words) that align with the scope of sequence for spelling instruction. For the first reading, the teacher reads the spelling paragraph, and students echo read. Students have the opportunity to reread the paragraph alone, or with a partner. However, these paragraphs are only used one day each week, and no other practice outside of the weekly spelling paragraph is provided. Grade 2 materials include sentence strips with phonics aligned to the program's scope and sequence that are utilized during small group lessons. While the sentence strips contain high-frequency words, the sentence strips are not connected text. Although decodable texts are referenced in "Read in Context" small group lessons, the books are not included in the materials for student practice. All decodable texts referenced in the materials are available as an additional purchase.

Materials include decodable texts that utilize high-frequency/irregularly spelled words:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 12, each week on Day 4, students read a paragraph that contains the week’s "Cheater" words (irregularly spelled words). Students color the "Cheater" words in yellow.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 99, materials reference the "Screech and Me Student Book" which contains a paragraph about keeping the earth clean. The teacher reads the passage, and students echo read. Students then re-read the paragraph independently, or with a partner. Students then draw an image picture and write a summary. The high-frequency words included are learn, earth, heard and does.

Decodable texts contain grade-level, high-frequency, irregularly spelled words aligned to the program’s scope and sequence. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Screech and Me Student Book," Lesson 3, Day 4, students read a paragraph that contains the week’s "Cheater" words: find, she, cold, and both. Students color the "Cheater" words in yellow. Example sentences from the paragraph include, “The man has got a lot of small, cold fish on his ship,” and “She did find them.”
  • In the "Screech and Me Student Book," there is a weekly decodable paragraph that includes the targeted phonics skills, as well as the high-frequency words for the week. For example, Lesson 22, Day 4, high-frequency words are: people, toward, together, juggled. The paragraph is as follows: “The crowd of people moved toward the circus tent. They went into the tent together. They looked toward the center of the ring. There they saw two people running toward them while they each juggled five balls in the air. Then, the two people came together and juggled back and forth with each other. The crowd cheered and clapped."

Materials include detailed lesson plans for repeated readings of decodable texts to address securing high-frequency words/irregularly spelled words in context. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 192, students use the "Word Find Template" found in the "Reproducibles" to record words in the teacher-chosen “decodable books ...with the desired target phonics skills.” Students designate a “Screech” category (i.e., high frequency words) to record words when they are found. Decodable books are not included with the materials.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," pages 153, students use the paragraph in the "Screech and Me Student Book." The high-frequency words practiced are two, school, move, and who. The teacher reads the paragraph with phrasing and expression, and students echo read. Students independently read and image the paragraph. Then students summarize the paragraph.

Criterion 2g - 2i.iii

Materials provide teachers resources and tools to collect ongoing data about student progress on the Standards. Materials also provide teachers with strategies for meeting the needs of a range of learners so that students demonstrate independence with grade-level standards.
12/20
+
-
Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Grade 2 partially meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of phonics. While materials provide assessment opportunities over the course of the school year to measure students’ mastery of phonics, teacher guidance provides general questions and directs the teacher to use the "Small Group" manuals. Assessments in the areas of nonsense word reading and sight words are administered on a quarterly basis. Limited assessments for fluency are provided in the materials.

Materials partially meet the criteria for assessment materials include publisher-produced alignment documentation of the standards addressed by specific questions, tasks, and assessment materials clearly denote which standards are being emphasized. Materials meet the criteria for materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards. Materials meet the criteria for materials regularly provide extensions and/or more advanced opportunities for students who read, write, speak, or listen above grade level. There is no reference to English Language Learners in the Pathways to Reading materials.

Indicator 2g

Regular and Systematic Opportunities for Assessment
0/0

Indicator 2g.iii

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of phonics in- and out-of-context (as indicated by the program scope and sequence). (K-2)
2/2
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of phonics (as indicated by the program scope and sequence).

Pathways to Reading materials provide assessment opportunities over the course of the school year to measure students’ mastery of phonics. Assessment opportunities include quarterly assessments such as "Spell a Sound" and various word spelling assessments. Students take a total of 30 weekly spelling assessments over the course of the year. Teachers are provided with instructional implications based on the assessments.

Materials provide resources and tools to collect ongoing data about students’ progress in phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 1, materials advise that each of the 30 weekly spelling lessons end with an exam which contains seven spelling words, a sentence the students practiced during the week, and two new words which include the phonics sound/spelling covered that week. The teacher is able to grade the spelling exams immediately.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," pages 1-4, materials outline the assessments provided:
    • "Test 2: 'Word Spelling-No Guides' contains 2 words=3 phonemes, 4 words=4 phonemes, 2 words=5 phonemes. This test is given four times throughout the year.
    • Test 3: Word Spelling-No Guides contains 3-'Word Spelling-with Guides' vowel assessment: e, i, a_e, ee, oi, ou, ar; Guides: c/e, i, y, c?k?, ck, 2 ee/s, -y, -ge, qu; digraphs ch, sh. This test is given three times throughout the year.
    • Test 4: 'Spelling Multi-Syllable' contains 6 two-syllable words, 2 three-syllable words. This test is given four times a year."
  • In the "Assessment Manual," pages 40-45, teachers are provided with forms to track both class data and individual student data on assessments.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 46, teachers are provided with instructions for using the "Excel Pathways Assessment" report. The Excel document provides a means for teachers to collect student assessment data. “Enter data each period. Scores are color coded. Red = at risk. Orange and yellow = nearing target. Green = On target.” Teachers are informed, “Group and individual reports are available.”

Materials offer systematically implemented assessment opportunities to determine students’ progress in phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," pages 50-51, students are assessed on Day 5 of each week. For example, Lesson 2, Day 5, students spell their dictated words and sentences from that week:
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 3, the purpose of Test 1: "Spell a Sound" is to, “Measure knowledge of sound/letter associations (phonics).” In this assessment the teacher dictates sounds to students.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 3, the purpose of Test 2: "Word Spelling-No Guides" is to, “Measure phonemic awareness ability to segment spoken words into phonemes.” The teacher is provided with a phonics score on this assessment. In this assessment, “Students spell 8 phonetically regular nonsense words.”
  • In the "Assessments Manual," page 3, "Word Spelling With Guides" states the purpose of the exam is to measure students’ phonics knowledge. Students spell eight words with phonics elements taught in Pathways to Spelling. The vowels included are a, i, a-e, ee, ae, ie, oi, ou, ar. Consonant digraphs included are sh, ch. Guides included are c/e, i, y, c?, k?, ck, 2 ee’s, qu, -y, and -ge.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 4, the purpose of Test 4: "Word Spelling Multisyllable" is to “Measure ability to segment multisyllable words into syllables. A phonemic awareness and phonics score is provided.” In this assessment “Students spell 8 nonsense multisyllable words.”

Multiple assessment opportunities are provided regularly for students to demonstrate progress toward mastery and independence with phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 1, materials advise that each of the 30 weekly spelling lessons end with an exam which contains seven spelling words, a sentence the students practiced during the week, and two new words which include the phonics sound/spelling covered that week. Students apply their phonics knowledge to spell the new words in the exam.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 1, the following assessments are given during the school year:
    • "Test 1: 'Spell a Sound'-given at the start of the school year and at the end of each quarter. However, if after the fall assessment a student scores a 4 or a 5, the student does not need to retake the assessment.
    • Test 2: 'Spelling: No Guides'-given at the start of the school year and at the end of each quarter. However, if after the fall assessment a student scores a 4 or a 5, the student does not need to retake the assessment.
    • Test 3: 'Spelling: With Guides'-given at the end of each quarter. However, if after the first quarter assessment a student scores a 4 or a 5, the student does not need to retake the assessment.
    • Test 4: 'Spelling Multisyllable'-given at the start of the school year and at the end of each quarter. However, if after the fall assessment a student scores a 4 or a 5, the student does not need to retake the assessment."
  • In the "Small Group Folder," weekly lessons on all Levels 1-4 provide small group daily practice during which teachers can track and take notes on students’ progress throughout the week. For example, Level 2, Day 2, students engage in "Segment and Write" activities with the focus on sounds.

Assessment materials provide teachers and students with information about students’ current skills/level of understanding of phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," pages 50-51, assessment offers insight into if the student is struggling with the following:
    • A segmenting error-sounds added (with = swith), omitted (cloth=coth), out of order (cloth=colth).
    • A phonics error (made=mad).
    • A visual memory error (word spelled phonetically, but incorrectly, kap=cap, his=hiz).
  • In the "Spelling Manual," pages 179-180, students spell words with the letter sound spelling c=/s/, and g=/j/. The words on the exam are voice, page, place, and large. The two new words presented are stage and grew. The dictation sentence included in the exam is "Did the new man go to space?" The teacher is advised to score the exam, and study student errors. Some of the error examples provided are phonics skills not mastered or segmenting errors like sounds being added, omitted or switched in a word.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 1, based on a student’s performance on a test, a student will be given a rubric score of 1-5. These numbers correspond with 1="High Risk," 2="At Risk," 3="Nearing Target," 4="On Target," 5="Above Target."

Materials genuinely measure students’ progress, and to support teachers with some instructional adjustments to help students make progress toward mastery in phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 180, the teacher is prompted to score and study student errors such as phonics skills not mastered or segmenting errors like sounds being added, omitted, or switched in a word. The teacher is to refer the student to “Thoughtful Spelling Strategies 1, 2, and 3.”
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 2, teachers are provided with instructions and tables for using fall assessment data to group students for instruction. “Divide larger groups of qualifying students into PTR Group A: poor spellers, stronger decoders and PTR Group B: poor spellers and poor decoders.” The teacher is instructed to, “Work with the qualifying PTR students during small group instructional time. Consider them a Guided Reading group, a Reader’s Workshop invitational group, or a small group during basal small group instructional time. It’s important to meet with these groups for 20 minutes, 4 times a week.”
  • In the "Assessment Manual," Page 3, based on a student’s performance on the "Spell a Sound" assessment, the teacher is provided with the following instructional implications, “Weak consonant digraphs: Check that pacing in "Segment and Write" is not too fast. Weak vowels: Check that students have progressed through "Vowel Practices 1-3.”
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 4, materials outline the instructional implications for students who have the following weaknesses:
    • Weak phonemic awareness scores on Test 4:
      • Student as ‘sound leader’ in segmenting five sounds.
      • Students read and spell multisyllable words with teacher error feedback.
      • Students "Read in Context" with teacher feedback.
    • Weak phonics score: read and spell with teacher feedback. Check that pacing hasn’t been too fast.

Indicator 2g.iv

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of word recognition and analysis (as indicated by the program scope and sequence). (K-2)
2/2
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of word recognition and analysis (as indicated by the program scope and sequence).

In Pathways to Reading, assessment opportunities align with the sequence of lessons taught. The materials include an "Assessment Manual" which provides information on student progress and instructional suggestions to assist students toward mastery of word recognition and analysis. Materials provide instructions for administering assessments throughout the Grade 2 sequence. Assessments in the areas of nonsense word reading and sight words are administered on a quarterly basis. Students are also assessed during small group instruction. Notetaking sheets are provided for the teacher to use during small group instruction time.

Materials regularly and systematically provide a variety of assessment opportunities over the course of the year to demonstrate students’ progress toward mastery and independence of word recognition (e.g., high-frequency words or irregularly spelled words) and analysis. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 29, materials state that students are assessed on 35 sight words at the end of each quarter.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," pages 29-33, the "General Directions" for "Sight Word Reading" exams provide four lists of words. Each list is tested at the end of the nine week period. If a student scores a 3 or less, they are tested again. At the end of the fourth nine week period, all students read List 4. The words are taken from "Fry" words 201-400. The initial "Fall Entrance Exam" has words from the first 200 "Fry" words for student placement in small groups.

Assessment materials provide teachers and students with information concerning students’ current skills/level of understanding of word recognition and word analysis. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 1, the rubric and interpretation provided with the tests are outlined as follows: “For all rubrics, the target score is a 4. A 5 can be considered above the norm. A high 3 indicates improving or nearing the target. Scores of 1, 2, and low 3 indicate additional instruction is needed.”
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 28, the "Sight Word Reading Entry Scoring" is provided. The exam uses words from the first 200 "Fry" words for student placement in small groups. A rubric is included, and teachers are instructed to consider students for small group instruction if they have a score of 27 or below.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," pages 29-33, at the end of each sight word assessment, the teacher is provided with a rubric to use to determine a student’s score. For example, if a student reads 28-31 words correctly, this would correspond with a rubric score of 3.

Materials support teachers with instructional suggestions for assessment-based steps to help students to progress toward mastery in word recognition and word analysis. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 2, materials provide suggestions for using assessment results to group students for instruction. The suggested groups are: 1) Students weaker in spelling than decoding, 2) Students weak in both spelling and decoding, 3) Whole group and spelling instruction only for students with rubric scores of 3 to 5. The materials state that “It’s important to meet with these groups for 20 minutes, 4 times a week.”
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 5, based on a student’s performance on the sight words reading assessment, the teacher is provided with instructional implications. Suggestions are broken down into three categories: weak phonemic awareness score, weak phonics score, and weak visual memory for non-phonetic words. For example, if the student is struggling with a weak visual memory for non-phonetic words, the teacher is provided with three suggestions for instruction, one of these is, “Increase student reading in context with teacher feedback on decoding errors. When a high frequency word is missed, place it on a flashcard for the student’s own personal word practice list.”
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 29, materials provide instructional implications based on the number of errors for the category. If a phonics error, for example, “Student may need slower pacing in 'Segment and Write,' or more practice with application into 'Old/New Word,' 'Single Word Reading,' and 'Read in Context' with teacher response to error questioning.”

Indicator 2g.v

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress in fluency (as indicated by the program scope and sequence). (1-2)
1/2
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress in fluency (as indicated by the program scope and sequence).

Fluency scores are recorded for "Reading Words" and "Reading in Context". The form uses a rubric continuum of Very Hesitant, Hesitant, Fluent, Very Fluent. The teacher takes notes on fluency during small group instruction as part of "Read Words" and "Read in Context," but materials do not provide follow-up for instructional adjustments based on these notes. The teacher can use the "Flip and Assist Manual" to provide “in the moment” help to students. However, "Flip and Assist" adjustments based on assessments are not provided.

Limited assessment opportunities are provided regularly and systematically over the course of the year in core materials for students to demonstrate progress toward mastery and independence of fluency. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 7, the purpose of “Tests of Fluency” is “to measure three components of fluency. Accuracy: accurate decoding of words in text. Fluency: decoding at a rate necessary for comprehension. Prosody: the appropriate use of phrasing and expression to convey meaning.” An assessment for fluency is not included in the materials. Teachers are provided with four suggested resources to use for fluency assessment. Direct links and instructions are not provided.

Assessment materials provide teachers and students with some information about students' current skills/level of understanding of fluency. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 2, materials provide a rubric for students’ expected "Words Correct Per Minute," for example, "Fall 0-15 wpm=High Risk; 16-33 wpm=At Risk; 34-42 wpm=Nearing Target; 43-44 wpm=On Target; >56 wpm=Above Target."
  • In the "Small Group Folder," page 8, in the "First UP Lesson Plans" the teacher takes daily notes on students’ fluency during "Read in Context" in small group lessons: Levels 2 & 3-Days 4, 5, 6; Level 4-Days 1, 2, 3. Observational notes include information on accuracy, fluency, expression/phrasing, comprehension, and comprehension assists.
  • In the "Small Group Folder," lesson pages, the teacher is provided with a place to take notes when students "Read Words" and "Read in Context." Teachers circle whether a student made many errors, a few errors or were “accurate with self corrections.” Teachers circle whether a student is “VH=Very Hesitant," “H=Hesitant,” “F=Fluent,” or “VF=Very Fluent.”

Materials do not support teachers with instructional adjustments to help students make progress toward mastery in fluency. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 7, a "Reading Levels by Word Reading Accuracy" chart is provided and gives information for "Frustration Level" as, “Below 90% Correct Decoding;” "Instructional Level" as, “90-95% Correct Decoding;” "Independent level" is listed as, “96-100% Correct Decoding;” Adjustments are not provided.

Indicator 2h

Materials include publisher-produced alignment documentation of the standards addressed by specific questions, tasks, and assessment and assessment materials clearly denote which standards are being emphasized.
1/2
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet the criteria for assessment materials include publisher-produced alignment documentation of the standards addressed by specific questions, tasks, and assessment materials clearly denote which standards are being emphasized.

The Pathways to Reading materials include a three page "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document. The standards alignment document lists "Reading Foundational Skills" standards with lessons and summative assessments that target each standard. While there is some guidance provided for standards alignment, alignment documentation is inconsistent. Three of the seven summative assessments include the specific standards that correspond to the assessment. Individual assessment items located in the "Assessment Manual" do not contain standards; however, assessments are specific to skills. The assessments that are listed in the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document focus on one skill. Although some of the Large and Small group lessons, as well as Pathways to Spelling activities, are referenced on the alignment document, the majority are not referenced. The formative assessments that are used during daily "Small Group" instruction and tracked on the lesson plans through observational notes are not explicitly aligned to standards. Standards are not listed in lessons in the teacher’s manuals.

Materials include denotations of the standards being assessed in the formative assessments:

  • In the "Small Group Folder," formative assessments are used daily during "Small Group" instruction and student progress is tracked on the "Small Group" observation sheets. Standards being addressed during daily instruction are not noted in the lesson objectives or on the documentation sheets.
  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, page 1, the ELA standard RF.2.3.a Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words, and RF.2.3b Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams is referenced in "Segment and Write" lessons where “Students identify and spell vowel sounds in words along a simple to complex continuum.”

Materials include denotations of standards being assessed in the summative assessments. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, pages 1-3, materials list the following:
    • RF2.3 Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams. Test 1-"Spell a Sound" and Test 5-"Nonsense Word Reading."
    • RF2.3 Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. Test 6-"Sight Word Reading."
  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, page 1, the ELA standard RF.2.3b Know spelling-sound correspondence for additional common vowel teams, and RF.2.3c Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels are assessed on Test 5 - "Nonsense Word Reading" located in the "Assessment Manual."
  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, page 2, the ELA standard RF.2.3f Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words is assessed in Test 6 "Sight Word Reading." Test 6 is administered at the start of the school year and at the end the first, second, third, and fourth nine weeks period.

Alignment documentation is not provided for tasks, questions, and assessment items. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, page 1, the publisher notes, “All strategies mentioned are embedded in all PTR manuals: Large and Small Group manuals, Spelling manuals, and 'Flip and Assist Booklet.' Not all pages in all resources have been cited.”
  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, page 2, materials list tasks and assessments for the ELA standard RF.2.3f Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words:
    • Pathways to Spelling weekly non-phonetic words ("Fry" "Cheater" words). Appendix A pages 1-8.
    • "SNAP and Map" "Screech" words. “This is a set of high frequency words. The non-phonetic words are placed on separate cards. Students practice developing visual memory for these. The words are also grouped by common attributes, for example the sound of -or in ‘word’, ‘work’ and 'world’, to aid orthographic mapping. Large Group manual, Teacher Preparation tab, pages 41-55.”
    • Assessment: Test 6 "Sight Word Reading."
  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, page 2, materials state the ELA standard RF2.3d Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes is addressed through the following PTR multisyllable strategies: "Large Group Manual," pages 74-100; "Pathways to Spelling" Lessons 14-19, 21-22, 26-30.

Alignment documentation does not consistently contain specific standards correlated to lessons. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, pages 1-2, materials state “All strategies mentioned are embedded in all PTR manuals: "Large and Small Group Manuals," "Spelling" manuals, and "Flip and Assist Booklet." Not all pages in all resources have been cited.” For example, the following is noted:
    • RF2.3b Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams: "Large Group Manual:" pages 6, 11, 20, 26, 30, 36, 41, 47, 49.
    • RF2.3d Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes: "Second Grade Large Group Manual," pages 74-100, Pathways to Spelling Lessons 14-19, 21-22, 26-30.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 36, Lesson 2, Day 1, it includes the lesson objective, “Phonics Guide: students verbalize the sound of /k/ at the ending of a one syllable word with one-letter vowel (short vowel) is spelled with a -c-k.” The lesson does not reference the corresponding standard.

Indicator 2i

Differentiation for Instruction: Materials provide teachers with strategies for meeting the needs of a range of learners so the content is accessible to all learners and supports them in meeting or exceeding grade-level standards.
0/0

Indicator 2i.i

Materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen in a language other than English with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards.
0/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 do not meet the criteria for materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen in a language other than English with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards.

There is no reference to English Language Learners in the Pathways to Reading materials.

Indicator 2i.ii

Materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen below grade-level with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards.
4/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the criteria for materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards.

In Pathways to Reading, a minimum of 60 minutes each day involves small group instruction based on four levels and grouping of students based on their specific needs. "Small Group" lessons are provided in the "Small Group Manual" to begin as soon as possible after the startup of school. Lessons located in the "Small Group Manual" provide an opportunity for reteaching skills initially taught in a whole group setting. Students are assessed regularly in order to move between levels. "Student Assists" for students who are struggling are spread throughout lessons and provide teachers with tips to help students. The "Flip and Assist Manual," also provides ideas for teachers to use to help students who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level.

Materials provide opportunities for small group reteaching. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 2, in the "First Quarter Literacy Plan" materials call for small group instruction (or one-on-one conferencing) to take place for 60 minutes each day. Twenty of the 60 minutes should be spent on specific, targeted teacher-led instruction to reteach concepts for students below grade level.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 81-82, the "Multisyllable" Lesson 7 -y, -ly is implemented as a whole group lesson. In the "Small Group Manual," pages 217-2219, "Multisyllable" Lesson 7 -y, -ly is provided as a small group lesson.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 19, instruction is broken into four levels. Materials provide teachers with a list of the activities that will be the focus of each level. For example, at Level 1, students will focus on vowel practice and "Segment and Write."

Materials provide guidance to teachers for scaffolding and adapting lessons and activities to support students who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level in extensive opportunities to learn foundational skills at the grade-level standards. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 101, in the "Segment and Write" lesson, a "Student Assist" is provided if the student has a spelling error like clamp for camp, a phonics error like couch spelled cauch, or a visual memory error like couch spelled cowch. For the phonics error, the teacher is provided with the dialogue, “(Student name), let me see you do steps one and two with your word. Think out loud for me. (Help the student to say each sound out loud and point to its spelling and check it. If the student doesn’t self correct, talk through the mental image of 'Vowel Town' and how to spell the /ou/ sound.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 155, in a "Read Words" lesson, the teacher is provided with several assists to use with students who may be struggling. If the “Student reads the word phonetically correct,” the teacher is instructed to say, “Good job. You read that word just the way it looks. (Uncover the phonetic spelling.) It has a sound that’s not playing fair. Here is how it sounds. Can you read it again? (R) T: Which sound wasn’t playing fair?”
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," pages 14, teachers are provided with assists to help students who are struggling with "Segment and Write." For example, if the student “names a letter instead of giving a sound,” the teacher is instructed to say, “That’s a letter name. What’s the sound?”

Indicator 2i.iii

Materials regularly provide extensions and/or more advanced opportunities for students who read, write, speak, or listen above grade-level.
2/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet the criteria for materials regularly provide extensions and/or more advanced opportunities for students who read, write, speak, or listen above grade level.

In Pathways to Reading, a minimum of 60 minutes each day involves small group instruction based on four levels and grouping of students based on their specific needs. Extension lessons are provided for students working above grade level through Xtend lessons and in the small group Level 4 lessons. Students who read, write, speak, or listen above grade level are provided activities that promote student independence. While Level 4 students receive fewer individualized teacher lessons in small groups, their daily and weekly activities advance to include more frequent opportunities to spell, read, and write in-context. However, some Level 4 lessons designed for students to investigate grade-level foundational skills at a greater depth rely on books that are not included with the materials. Opportunities for advanced instruction in spelling are not provided. All students complete the same whole group lessons in the Spelling Manual.

Materials provide multiple opportunities for advanced students to investigate grade-level foundational skills at a greater depth. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 19, instruction is broken into four levels. Teachers are provided with a list of the activities that will be the focus of each level. The activities students complete in Level 4 are more challenging than the Level 1 activities. For example, in Level 1 the focus is "Vowel Practice," and "Segment and Write," and in Level 4, students focus on "Read Words," and "Read in Context."
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 217-218, "Multisyllable" Lesson 7 includes “timing modification” as students progress through the lesson. For example, “As students master the endings begin to go for fluency.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 248-250, materials provide the scope and sequence of instruction taught at each small group level. By Level 4, students apply the knowledge of previously mastered skills. Skills taught in Level 4 include: "Read New Vocabulary, Read in Context, Context Reading Skills, and Spelling and Writing."
  • In the "Small Group Folder," page 5, Level 3 and Level 4 practice materials are indicated for students who are ready to explore foundational skills in greater depth. For example, in Day 1 of Level 4 instruction, students engage in "Reading Multisyllable Words," and "Reading in Context." Level 3 students begin "Read Multisyllable Words," and "Read in Context" instruction on Day 4.

Criterion 2j - 2n

Materials support effective use of technology and visual design to enhance student learning. Digital materials are accessible and available in multiple platforms.
0/0
+
-
Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Grade 2 materials meet the criteria for digital materials (either included as supplementary to a textbook or as part of a digital curriculum) are web-based, compatible with multiple Internet browsers (e.g., Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, etc.), “platform neutral” (i.e., are compatible with multiple operating systems such as Windows and Apple and are not proprietary to any single platform), follow universal programming style, and allow the use of tablets and mobile devices.

Materials partially meet the criteria for materials support effective use of technology to enhance student learning, drawing attention to evidence and texts as appropriate. There are no adaptive or technological innovations for students provided by the program. Materials do not provide guidance or suggestions on how to customize the spelling PowerPoints. Materials provided for students have visual designs which are engaging and not distracting. Although the visual design of the website and teachers manuals is easy to read, there are multiple teacher manuals utilized for lessons.

Indicator 2j

Digital materials (either included as a supplement to a textbook or as part of a digital curriculum) are web-based, compatible with multiple Internet browsers (e.g., Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, etc.), “platform neutral” (i.e., are compatible with multiple operating systems such as Windows and Apple and are not proprietary to any single platform), follow universal programming style, and allow the use of tablets and mobile devices.
0/0
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 2 meet the criteria for digital materials (either included as supplementary to a textbook or as part of a digital curriculum) are web-based, compatible with multiple Internet browsers (e.g., Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, etc.), “platform neutral” (i.e., are compatible with multiple operating systems such as Windows and Apple and are not proprietary to any single platform), follow universal programming style, and allow the use of tablets and mobile devices.

Digital materials, including reproducibles, spelling PowerPoints, spelling and assessment masters, and instructional videos for teachers, are compatible with the internet browsers Internet Explorer and Google Chrome. The materials are compatible with Windows and Apple products. The materials are accessible on an Amazon tablet, and an iPhone.

The Pathways to Reading website is compatible with Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari, and Firefox. Materials also work on both an Apple and PC device.

Indicator 2k

Materials support effective use of technology to enhance student learning.
0/0
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 2 partially meet the criteria for materials support effective use of technology to enhance student learning, drawing attention to evidence and texts as appropriate.

The daily Pathways to Spelling PowerPoints include animation and student-friendly text to draw attention to phonics and spelling patterns of the week. The decodable paragraphs utilized during spelling instruction are provided in the "Spelling" PowerPoint. However, the majority of materials on the website are for teachers to interact with rather than for students’ use. Teachers can download instructional resources, for example, "Small Group Folders," "Decodable Books for Small Group Placement Guides," "Excel Pathways Assessment Report," "SNAP and Map" Directions, "SMART Board Resources," "Reproducibles," and "Assessment Masters." There is a video library that provides guidance on enunciation of vowel sounds.

These spelling lessons on the website are used in conjunction with the "Spelling Manual." For example, the following is noted:

  • The Pathways to Reading website includes "First Grade Spelling PowerPoints" for Weeks 1-30.
  • In Week 13, Day 4, "Spelling" PowerPoint, students practice finger writing the words. The PowerPoint contains the weekly paragraph that is also found in the "Screech and Me Student Book."

Indicator 2l

Digital materials include opportunities for teachers to personalize learning for all students, using adaptive or other technological innovations.
0/0
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 2 do not meet the criteria for digital materials include opportunities for teachers to personalize learning for all students, using adaptive or other technological innovations.

There are no adaptive or technological innovations for students provided by the program.

Indicator 2m

Materials can be easily customized for local use.
0/0
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 2 do not meet the criteria for materials can be easily customized for local use.

Digital assessment documents, "Reproducibles," "Weekly Word Wall," and "Weekly Take Home Lessons" provided are PDFs and not editable or customizable. "Spelling" PowerPoints for the lessons to accompany the "Pathways to Spelling Manual" are fully customizable. However, materials do not provide guidance or suggestions on how to customize the "Spelling" PowerPoints.

Indicator 2n

The visual design (whether in print or digital) is not distracting or chaotic, but supports students in engaging thoughtfully with the subject.
0/0
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 2 do not meet the criteria for the visual design (whether in print or digital) is not distracting or chaotic, but supports students in engaging thoughtfully with the subject.

Materials provided for students have visual designs which are engaging and not distracting. Although the visual design of the website and teacher manuals are easy to read, there are multiple teacher manuals utilized for individual lessons which prompt the teacher to gather lesson information from multiple sources. This could lead to inefficiencies and missing elements in lessons. There is a "Large Group Manual," a "Small Group Manual," a "Pathways to Spelling Manual," a "Screech and Me Student Spelling Book," a "Flip and Assist Manual," an "Advanced Oral PA Manual," and a "Small Group Folder." For a single lesson, the teacher has to navigate through several pages in the "Large Group Manual" with pages divided into the front section for lessons and the back section of the manual for teacher preparation and/or through several of the various manuals provided. Organization of the materials is inconsistent.

Organization of the materials requires the teacher to navigate several manuals and the website to implement a lesson. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 69, the "Read Words" directions state, “Use the Placement Guide (SGF, center page 3) to choose the correct set of SNAP and Word Reading List practice words.” (SGF stands for Small Group Folder). The teacher is to, “Follow Read Words Lesson 4-SNAP Read and Hand Back with Screech Words in Read Words section of manual.” Then the teacher is to, “Use the Flip and Assist ‘Read Words’ to assist in responding to student errors.”
  • "Spelling" lessons rely on the PowerPoint lessons. For example, in "Pathways to Spelling," page 151, the teacher is instructed to “Have students write the two dictation sentences. Read the sentences in phrases. Tell students to write the sentence quickly and then re-read it checking for punctuation and spelling.” However, the sentences do not appear in the "Pathways to Spelling Manual" for teacher planning.

Organization of the materials is inconsistent. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Reproducibles," 171 loose-leaf pages are provided and not organized in a binder or folder. Although the reproducibles are color-coded, and organized into five sections, the pages are not numbered which makes it difficult to find resources.
  • On the Pathways to Reading website, Lesson 22 PowerPoints contain images over the words to be reviewed and discussed, for example see PowerPoints 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14. Other PowerPoints for Lesson 22 provide non-distracting images. For example, in PowerPoint 1 "Thoughtful Spellers" images of ears appear when telling students to listen for sounds and syllables. A face with a thinking bubble appears when students are asked to imagine letters in their minds.
  • Pages are not numbered in the "Screech and Me Spelling Student Book."
abc123

Additional Publication Details

Report Published Date: 08/06/2020

Report Edition: 2017

About Publishers Responses

All publishers are invited to provide an orientation to the educator-led team that will be reviewing their materials. The review teams also can ask publishers clarifying questions about their programs throughout the review process.

Once a review is complete, publishers have the opportunity to post a 1,500-word response to the educator report and a 1,500-word document that includes any background information or research on the instructional materials.

Please note: Beginning in spring 2020, reports developed by EdReports.org will be using an updated version of our review tools. View draft versions of our revised review criteria here.

Educator-Led Review Teams

Each report found on EdReports.org represents hundreds of hours of work by educator reviewers. Working in teams of 4-5, reviewers use educator-developed review tools, evidence guides, and key documents to thoroughly examine their sets of materials.

After receiving over 25 hours of training on the EdReports.org review tool and process, teams meet weekly over the course of several months to share evidence, come to consensus on scoring, and write the evidence that ultimately is shared on the website.

All team members look at every grade and indicator, ensuring that the entire team considers the program in full. The team lead and calibrator also meet in cross-team PLCs to ensure that the tool is being applied consistently among review teams. Final reports are the result of multiple educators analyzing every page, calibrating all findings, and reaching a unified conclusion.

Rubric Design

The EdReports.org’s rubric supports a sequential review process through three gateways. These gateways reflect the importance of standards alignment to the fundamental design elements of the materials and considers other attributes of high-quality curriculum as recommended by educators.

Advancing Through Gateways

  • Materials must meet or partially meet expectations for the first set of indicators to move along the process. Gateways 1 and 2 focus on questions of alignment. Are the instructional materials aligned to the standards? Are all standards present and treated with appropriate depth and quality required to support student learning?
  • Gateway 3 focuses on the question of usability. Are the instructional materials user-friendly for students and educators? Materials must be well designed to facilitate student learning and enhance a teacher’s ability to differentiate and build knowledge within the classroom. In order to be reviewed and attain a rating for usability (Gateway 3), the instructional materials must first meet expectations for alignment (Gateways 1 and 2).

Key Terms Used throughout Review Rubric and Reports

  • Indicator Specific item that reviewers look for in materials.
  • Criterion Combination of all of the individual indicators for a single focus area.
  • Gateway Organizing feature of the evaluation rubric that combines criteria and prioritizes order for sequential review.
  • Alignment Rating Degree to which materials meet expectations for alignment, including that all standards are present and treated with the appropriate depth to support students in learning the skills and knowledge that they need to be ready for college and career.
  • Usability Degree to which materials are consistent with effective practices for use and design, teacher planning and learning, assessment, and differentiated instruction.

ELA Foundational Skills Rubric and Evidence Guides

The ELA foundational skills review rubric identifies the criteria and indicators for high quality instructional materials. The rubric supports a sequential review process that reflect the importance of alignment to the standards then consider other high-quality attributes of curriculum as recommended by educators.

The ELA foundational skills rubric evaluates materials based on:

  • Alignment to Standards and Research-Based Practices for Foundational Skills Instruction
  • Implementation, Support Materials & Assessment

The ELA Evidence Guides complement the rubrics by elaborating details for each indicator including the purpose of the indicator, information on how to collect evidence, guiding questions and discussion prompts, and scoring criteria.

NOTE: The ELA foundational skills rubric contains only two gateways. The structural pieces that we normally review as a part of Gateway 3 (e.g. differentiation) in our comprehensive reviews are critical to the success of a program, and are, therefore, interspersed and combined with other indicators in Gateway 2.

The ELA foundational skills rubric contains only two gateways: Alignment to Standards and Research-Based Practices for Foundational Skills Instruction (Gateway 1) and Implementation, Support Materials & Assessment (Gateway 2). The structural pieces that we normally review as a part of Gateway 3 (e.g. differentiation) in our comprehensive reviews are critical to the success of a program, and are, therefore, interspersed and combined with other indicators in Gateway 2.

The EdReports rubric supports a sequential review process through three gateways. These gateways reflect the importance of alignment to college and career ready standards and considers other attributes of high-quality curriculum, such as usability and design, as recommended by educators.

Materials must meet or partially meet expectations for the first set of indicators (gateway 1) to move to the other gateways. 

Gateways 1 and 2 focus on questions of alignment to the standards. Are the instructional materials aligned to the standards? Are all standards present and treated with appropriate depth and quality required to support student learning?

Gateway 3 focuses on the question of usability. Are the instructional materials user-friendly for students and educators? Materials must be well designed to facilitate student learning and enhance a teacher’s ability to differentiate and build knowledge within the classroom. 

In order to be reviewed and attain a rating for usability (Gateway 3), the instructional materials must first meet expectations for alignment (Gateways 1 and 2).

Alignment and usability ratings are assigned based on how materials score on a series of criteria and indicators with reviewers providing supporting evidence to determine and substantiate each point awarded.

For ELA and math, alignment ratings represent the degree to which materials meet expectations, partially meet expectations, or do not meet expectations for alignment to college- and career-ready standards, including that all standards are present and treated with the appropriate depth to support students in learning the skills and knowledge that they need to be ready for college and career.

For science, alignment ratings represent the degree to which materials meet expectations, partially meet expectations, or do not meet expectations for alignment to the Next Generation Science Standards, including that all standards are present and treated with the appropriate depth to support students in learning the skills and knowledge that they need to be ready for college and career.

For all content areas, usability ratings represent the degree to which materials meet expectations, partially meet expectations, or do not meet expectations for effective practices (as outlined in the evaluation tool) for use and design, teacher planning and learning, assessment, differentiated instruction, and effective technology use.

Math K-8

Math High School

ELA K-2

ELA 3-5

ELA 6-8


ELA High School

Science Middle School

X