Alignment: Overall Summary

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 5 do not meet expectations for Alignment to NGSS, Gateways 1 and 2. Gateway 1: Designed for NGSS; Criterion 1: Three-Dimensional Learning does not meet expectations. The materials consistently include three-dimensional learning opportunities and incorporate opportunities for student sensemaking with the three dimensions for a majority of the learning sequences. Three-dimensional objectives are consistently present at the unit level, but not at the lesson level. The summative assessments do not consistently measure the three dimensions for their respective objectives. The formative assessments are not consistently three dimensional, nor do they provide guidance to support the instructional process. Criterion 2: Phenomena and Problems Drive Learning does not meet expectations. Phenomena and problems are present and, in some instances, connected to DCIs in life, physical, or earth/space science. However, they are not consistently presented as directly as possible to students. The materials elicit student prior knowledge and experience related to the problems present in some instances but do not leverage it. Phenomena and problems are not consistently present in this grade and do not consistently drive learning and use of the three dimensions.

Alignment

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Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway 1:

Designed for NGSS

0
14
24
28
8
24-28
Meets Expectations
15-23
Partially Meets Expectations
0-14
Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway 2:

Coherence and Scope

0
16
30
34
N/A
30-34
Meets Expectations
17-29
Partially Meets Expectations
0-16
Does Not Meet Expectations

Usability

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Not Rated

Not Rated

Gateway 3:

Usability

0
30
50
59
N/A
50-59
Meets Expectations
31-49
Partially Meets Expectations
0-30
Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway One

Designed for NGSS

Does Not Meet Expectations

+
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Gateway One Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 5 do not meet expectations for Gateway 1: Designed for NGSS; Criterion 1: Three-Dimensional Learning does not meet expectations and Criterion 2: Phenomena and Problems Drive Learning does not meet expectations.

Criterion 1a - 1c

Materials are designed for three-dimensional learning and assessment.
6/16
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Criterion Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 5 do not meet expectations for Criterion 1a-1c: Three-Dimensional Learning. The materials consistently include integration of the three dimensions in at least one learning opportunity per learning sequence. The materials consistently engage students in three-dimensional sensemaking in a majority of learning sequences. The materials do not consistently provide three-dimensional learning objectives at the lesson level and do not provide teacher guidance to support the instructional process. Additionally, in the few instances where lesson-level three-dimensional objectives are present, they do not consistently formatively assess to reveal student knowledge and use of those three dimensions. Three-dimensional objectives are present at the unit level but the corresponding summative assessments are not consistently three-dimensional and do not address all of the three dimensions of the objectives.

Indicator 1a

Materials are designed to integrate the Science and Engineering Practices (SEP), Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI), and Crosscutting Concepts (CCC) into student learning.

Indicator 1a.i

Materials consistently integrate the three dimensions in student learning opportunities.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 5 meet expectations that they are designed to integrate the Science and Engineering Practices (SEPs), Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs), and Crosscutting Concepts (CCCs) into student learning opportunities. The nine learning sequences in Grade 5 include at least one lesson where all three dimensions are integrated. All of these lessons are Investigate or Think Like a Scientist/Engineer lessons.

Examples of learning opportunities within a learning sequence that integrate all three dimensions:

  • In Grade 5 Unit 1: Physical Science,  Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: Think Like a Scientist: Develop a Model, students create a model to represent matter made of particles. In Explore, students develop a model to represent how matter is made of particles (DCI-PS1.A-E1, SEP-MOD-P3). They build and share their models with one another,  explain how their model shows particles too small to be seen, and how other things too small to be seen can be modeled (CCC-SPQ-E1). 

  • In Grade 5,  Unit 1: Physical Science,  Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Investigate: Chemical Reactions, students investigate whether a chemical change occurred. Students observe an antacid dropped in water and discuss the results. Students are guided to repeat the demonstration themselves and then explain how they knew a new substance formed (DCI-PS1.B-E1). Students work in pairs to determine cause and effect relationships evident from the investigation (CCC-CE-E1) then determine how they would conduct an investigation with baking soda and vinegar to show a chemical reaction occurred (SEP-INV-E2). 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 2: Life Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: Think Like a Scientist: Support an Argument, students review the text, pictures and captions from previous lessons to use as evidence to support a claim about what a plant needs (DCI-LS1.C-E2, SEP-INFO-P3). Students describe how the amount of matter in a forest changes as the trees mature (CCC-EM-E2). 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 2: Life Science Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Think Like a Scientist: Compare and Contrast, students learn about food chains, food webs, and the cycling of matter. Students compare and contrast two food chains to identify the original source of the energy (DCI-PS3.D-E2) and how animals use this energy (DCI-LS1.C-E1). Students identify the limitations of the models (SEP-MOD-E1) and identify the different forms of energy in a food chain (CCC-EM-E3).

  • In Grade 5, Unit 3: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: Investigate: Interactions of Earth’s Systems, students create a terrarium to model the systems on earth and how they interact. Students are guided through the investigation as they follow the steps in their text to build a terrarium. Students observe for three weeks, answer questions comparing their predictions with their observations and about how systems are being shown to interact (SEP-MOD-P1, DCI-ESS2.A-E1), and discuss how each of the parts of their terrarium represent the system it is modeling  (CCC-SYS-E2).

  • In Grade 5, Unit 3: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Think Like A Scientist: Develop A Model, students learn about interactions between earth’s spheres and how much of earth’s water is in different reservoirs. Students see images of the Grand Canyon, an ocean or a river, redwoods in California, and a hot air balloon in the sky. They identify which earth system each represents and how they might be interacting with each other. Then they develop a model of an interaction between two of earth’s spheres (DCI-ESS2.A-E1). They identify the two systems they show and how they model an interaction (SEP-MOD-E2, CCC-SYS-E2), design their model with guiding questions, revise their model, using feedback, and reflect on the strengths and limitations of their model (SEP-MOD-E1). 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 3: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 3, Lesson: Investigate: Plate and Pollution, students learn about the impacts of humans on earth’s spheres, as well as how people try to reverse these effects. Students carry out an investigation to determine the effects of pollution on plants (DCI-ESS3.C-E1). Students describe how pollution disrupts the system and its typical interactions (CCC-SYS-E2) then identify limitations of this investigation as a model (SEP-MOD-E1).

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4: Earth Science,  Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: Investigate: Gravity, students obtain evidence to support the argument that gravitational force acts in a downward direction. Students predict how earth’s gravitational force will affect objects when dropped, pushed, or tossed (DCI-PS2.B-E3). Students discuss the cause and effect relationships of gravity and falling objects (CCC-CE-E1) then discuss the effects gravity has on the earth. They explain that all objects in the investigation fell “down” using the data from the experiment as evidence (SEP-ARG-E4).

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Investigate: Graph Hours of Daylight, students graph data to identify patterns in the amount of daylight hours. Students plot data on a graph to reveal patterns of the average number of daylight hours in Chicago, Illinois, during a year (DCI-ESS1.B-E1, SEP-DATA-E1), and they then discuss the patterns they observed (CCC-PAT-E1).

Indicator 1a.ii

Materials consistently support meaningful student sensemaking with the three dimensions.
2/4
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 5 partially meet expectations that they consistently support meaningful student sensemaking with the three dimensions. Five of the nine units in Grade 5, which are each structured as a 5E lesson sequence, support students to engage in sensemaking with all three dimensions. Two of the nine lesson sequences used sensemaking in two dimensions while the remaining  two used sensemaking in one dimension only. 

Examples of learning opportunities within a lesson sequence where SEPs and CCCs meaningfully support student sensemaking with the other dimensions:

  • In Grade 5, Unit 1: Physical Science, Lesson Sequence 1; Lesson: Think Like a Scientist: Develop a Model, students create a model to represent matter made of particles. Students develop a model to represent that matter is made of particles (DCI-PS1.A-E1, SEP-MOD-P3). They build and share their models with one another,  explain how their model shows particles too small to be seen, and explain how other things too small to be seen can be modeled (CCC-SPQ-E1). 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 2: Life Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: Investigate: Hydroponics, students learn about how plants get energy and how animals use energy from plants. Students follow steps to investigate if plants can grow without soil, primarily from air and water (DCI-LS1.C-E2). Students support an argument that plants can grow without soil, using evidence from the investigation (SEP-ARG-E4). Students identify the parts of an aquaponics system and respond to a question asking how matter was transported in the system, noting how nutrients were cycled to the plant (CCC-EM-E2). 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 3: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Think Like a Scientist: Develop a Model, students develop a model that describes an interaction between two of earth’s systems (SEP-MOD-E3, DCI-ESS2.A-E1, CCC-SYS-E2). Students then identify limitations of their model (SEP-MOD-E1) in showing how these systems interact. 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 3: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 3, Lesson: Investigate: Plants and Pollution, students learn about the impacts of humans on earth’s systems, as well as how people try to reverse these effects. Students carry out an investigation to determine the effects of pollution on plants (DCI-ESS3.C-E1) then describe how pollution disrupts the system and its typical interactions (CCC-SYS-E2). Students identify limitations of this investigation as a model (SEP-MOD-E1). 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Investigate: Sunlight and Shadows, students track patterns of sunlight. Students observe a pencil's shadow at different times of day to determine how the angle of the sun affects shadows; students   use a model to identify that the sun follows predictable patterns (SEP-INV-E3, DCI-ESS1.B-E1) and use that model to predict shadow length. Students describe the patterns that they observed (CCC-PAT-E2) and use the patterns to predict what tomorrow’s shadows would look like at different times of the day. 

Examples of lesson sequence where SEPs or CCCs meaningfully support student sensemaking with the other dimensions:

  • In Grade 5, Unit 1: Physical Science, Lesson Sequence 2; Lesson Investigate: Chemical Reactions students investigate chemical changes. Students observe a demonstration showing the chemical reaction of water and an antacid tablet and state whether it is a physical or chemical change and how they know (DCI-PS1.B-E1). Students perform an investigation to find the mass before and after the chemical reaction of water and an effervescent tablet, create a data table to record information (SEP-DATA-E1), and use the evidence to draw a conclusion (SEP-CEDS-E2). In the Teach for the Dimensions section, students are asked to identify cause and effect relationships to explain what happened in the investigation; however, students do not engage in using a CCC throughout  the lesson to support them in sensemaking with the DCI. 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 2: Life Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Think Like a Scientist: Compare and Contrast, students learn about food chains, food webs, and the cycling of matter. Students work in groups to compare and contrast a pond food chain and a rainforest food chain; they share their findings that the pathway of energy in both begins with the sun, and the energy is used in similar ways (DCI-PS3.D-E2, DCI-LS1.C-E1). Students discuss the different forms of energy in a food chain (CCC-EM-E3). There is a missed opportunity to use the SEP of modeling to deepen understanding of the DCI. 

Examples of lesson sequence where SEPs and CCCs do not meaningfully support student sensemaking with the other dimensions:

  • In Grade 5,  Unit 3: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: Investigate: Interactions of Earth’s Systems, students learn about earth’s spheres and how they interact. Students create a terrarium and make observations each week. Students then identify how the parts of the terrarium represent the earth’s spheres and how they interact (SEP-MOD-P1). There is a missed opportunity to use a CCC or SEP to deepen understanding of the DCI . 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: Investigate: Gravity, students learn about gravitational force. Students observe the effect of gravity on various objects when they are dropped, tossed, and pushed. Students make and record predictions and observations. Students use evidence from their observations to support the claim that gravity exerts a downward force (DCI-PS2.B-E3). While students identify cause and effect relationships with falling objects (e.g. gravity causes objects to fall) and engage in an argument, they are confirming information that they read in a prior lesson and not deepening their understanding of the DCI (SEP-ARG-E4, CCC-CE-E1).

Indicator 1b

Materials are designed to elicit direct, observable evidence for the three-dimensional learning in the instructional materials.
0/4
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 5 do not meet expectations that they are designed to elicit direct, observable evidence for the three-dimensional learning in the instructional materials. Most lessons have multiple objectives and while each of these objectives may include one or two dimensions, the objectives are not individually three dimensional. A few lessons include three-dimensional learning objectives; these are generally the Think Like a Scientist or Think Like an Engineer lessons and a Performance Expectation is used as the lesson level objective. 

All lessons include a Wrap It Up section where students are assessed on the learning objectives; however, the questions typically only address one or two dimensions. In addition, each unit includes a Checkpoint quiz that has one-dimensional items that assess the DCI and sometimes one or two other dimensions. All of the Investigate lessons and Think Like a Scientist/Engineer lessons are group activities and students are individually assessed on a rubric used by both teacher and student; however, many of these rubrics serve as checklists rather than a reflection of students meeting the learning objectives. Overall, the materials do not provide guidance to teachers for using formative assessment data to support the instructional process. In a few instances, the Science Background section will mention misconceptions and ideas to build student understanding, however, these are not connected to a formative assessment. 

Examples of lessons that do not have three-dimensional objectives, the formative assessment task(s) do not assess student knowledge of all (three) dimensions in the learning objective, and do not provide guidance to support the instructional process.

  • In Grade 5, Unit 1: Physical Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: Magnetism, there are three learning objectives: “describe magnetism,” “identify substances that are attracted to a magnet,” and “explain how the property of magnetism can be tested.” These are not three-dimensional objectives. Students are assessed with three Wrap It Up questions and a digital assessment. Students answer the question, what is magnetism (DCI-PS1.A-E3), they provide an example of an item that is magnetic and identify the type of metal it most likely contains (DCI-PS1.A-E3), and they determine how the property of magnetism can be tested (DCI-PS1.A-E3, SEP-INV-E2). These questions assess the learning objectives but do not address all three dimensions. The teacher materials provide no guidance for modifying instruction if students do not meet the objectives for this lesson.

  • In Grade 5, Unit 1: Physical Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Investigate: Changing States of Water, there are two learning objectives: “determine whether matter is conserved during a change in state,” and “describe changes in the physical properties of matter that occur during changes in state.” These are not three-dimensional objectives. Students are assessed with four Wrap It Up questions, a teacher rubric, and student self-assessment rubrics. Students determine which properties of water stay the same after cooling, which properties change, and then explain the differences in the bags after Step 4 (DCI-PS1.A-E2). Students explain how their findings demonstrate the conservation of matter (DCI-PS1.A-E2). These questions assess the learning objectives but do not address all three dimensions. The teacher rubric assesses students while they conduct the investigation. There are no provided student expected responses, and the teacher materials provide no guidance for modifying instruction if students do not meet the objectives for this lesson.

  • In Grade 5, Unit 2: Life Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Cycles of Matter, there is one learning objective: “describe how matter cycles through an ecosystem and among the plants, animals, and microbes that live and die in the environment.” This is not a three-dimensional objective. Students are assessed with three Wrap It Up questions that  ask students to identify the role of decomposers in the nitrogen cycle (DCI-LS2.B-E1, CCC-SYS-E2), explain why the carbon dioxide–oxygen cycle is important to plants and animals (DCI-LS2.B-E1), and to draw a diagram with arrows to sequence organisms that are part of the nitrogen cycle (DCI-LS2.B-E1, CCC-SYS-E2). These questions assess the learning objectives but do not address all three dimensions. There are no provided student expected responses and the teacher materials provide no guidance for modifying instruction if students do not meet the objectives for this lesson.

  • In Grade 5, Unit 3: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: The Ocean Affects Climate, there is one learning objective: “describe how the ocean influences climate.”  This is not a three-dimensional objective. Students are assessed with three Wrap It Up questions that ask students to define climate, explain how the Gulf Stream affects the climate of the United States (DCI-ESS2.A-E1), and explain how the ocean impacts local temperatures near the coast (DCI-ESS2.A-E1). These questions assess the learning objectives but do not address all three dimensions. The teacher materials provide no guidance for modifying instruction if students do not meet the objectives for this lesson.

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Apparent Motion, there are two learning objectives: “describe how Earth, sun, and moon move in space and as a system” and “relate gravitational force to the motions of Earth, the sun, and the moon in space.” These are not three-dimensional objectives.Students are assessed with three Wrap It Up questions and a digital assessment. Students are asked to contrast real and apparent motion, explain why celestial bodies seem to change positions (DCI-ESS1.B-E1), and determine if a plane moving across the sky is real or apparent motion, and classify additional scenarios as real or apparent motion. These questions partially assess the learning objectives but do not address all three dimensions.The teacher materials provide no guidance for modifying instruction if students do not meet the objectives for this lesson.

Examples of lessons that have three-dimensional objectives, the formative assessment task(s) do not assess student knowledge of all (three) dimensions in the learning objective, and do not provide guidance to support the instructional process.

  • In Grade 5, Unit 1: Physical Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: Think Like a Scientist: Develop a Model, there is one learning objective, “develop a model to describe that matter is made of particles too small to be seen.” This is a three-dimensional learning objective. Students are assessed with three Wrap It Up questions, a teacher rubric, and student self-assessment rubric. The Wrap It Up questions ask students to explain what a model is (SEP-MOD-E4), identify the components of a model, and to identify the type of matter that their model represents (DCI-PS1.A-E1).  While these three questions connect to the objective but focus on describing the group project. The rubric consists of five statements related to how students conduct the investigation. These assessments partially assess the learning objectives but do not address all three dimensions. The teacher materials provide no guidance for modifying instruction if students do not meet the objectives for this lesson. 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Investigate: Apparent Brightness, there is one learning objective, “use data from the investigation to support an argument that differences in the apparent brightness of the sun compared to other stars is due to their relative distances from Earth.”  This is a three-dimensional learning objective. Students are assessed with three Wrap It Up questions, a teacher rubric, and a student self-assessment rubric. Students describe the brightness of model stars in the investigation, explain which star could represent the Sun (DCI-ESS1.A-E1), and support an argument about why stars the same size may be different brightnesses (DCI-ESS1.A-E1, SEP-ARG-E4). The teacher rubric assesses students on various components of the investigation, including how well they identify the given claim, how well they create a model of apparent brightness, and how well they show apparent brightness in their model (SEP-MOD-E3, DCI-ESS1.A-E1). The objectives are met though they are not 3D. These assessments partially assess the learning objectives but do not address all three dimensions. The teacher materials provide no guidance for modifying instruction if students do not meet the objectives for this lesson.

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Investigate: Moon Phases, there is one learning objective, “collect and analyze data to identify sequences and predict patterns of change in the observable appearance of the moon over time.” This is a three-dimensional learning objective. Students are assessed with three Wrap It Up questions, a teacher rubric, and a student self-assessment rubric. Students identify the direction of the moon around Earth (DCI-ESS1.B-E1), predict moon phases based on their observations (DCI-ESS1.B-E1), and contrast their model with the real system (SEP-MOD-E1). The teacher rubric assesses students on various components of the investigation, including how well they identify the direction of the moon’s movement, how well they create their model, and how well they use the model to make predictions (DCI-ESS1.B-E1). These assessments partially assess the learning objectives but do not address all three dimensions.The teacher materials provide no guidance for modifying instruction if students do not meet the objectives for this lesson.

Examples of lessons that have three-dimensional objectives, the formative assessment task(s) assess student knowledge of all (three) dimensions in the learning objective, but do not provide guidance to support the instructional process.

  • In Grade 5,  Unit 2: Life Science,  Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Think Like A Scientist: Compare and Contrast, there is one learning objective: “use food chains as models to compare the pathway of energy from the sun through the organisms in two different environments.” This is a three-dimensional learning objective. Students are assessed with two Wrap It Up questions, a teacher rubric, and a student self-assessment rubric. The Wrap It Up questions ask students to interpret diagrams to identify the original source of energy for both food chains (DCI-PS3.D-E2) and to compare how the producers and consumers in the pond are similar to and different from those in the rainforest (DCI-PS3.D-E2, CCC-EM-E2). The teacher rubric consists of four statements related to the investigation and assess whether students identify a food chain as a model describing energy flow throughout a system; compare a pond food chain to a rainforest food chain, identifying how they were alike. (DCI-PS3.D-E2, CCC-EM-E2);  contrast a pond food chain to a rainforest food chain, identifying how they were different (DCI-PS3.D-E2); and use the model to describe the relationship between energy from the sun and energy animals get from the food they eat (SEP-MOD-P2, DCI-PS3.D-E2, CCC-EM-E2). While each assessment question is not three-dimensional, collectively they assess the three-dimensional objective. The teacher materials provide no guidance for modifying instruction if students do not meet the objectives for this lesson. 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 2: Life Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Think Like A Scientist: Develop A Model, there is one learning objective, “develop a model to describe the movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment.” This is a three-dimensional learning objective. Students are assessed with four Wrap It Up questions, a teacher rubric, and a student self-assessment rubric. The teacher rubric consists of five statements that assess whether students develop a model of a chosen ecosystem that identifies the living and nonliving things in the ecosystem (SEP-MOD-E6);  the model explains the relationship among organisms by demonstrating the movement of matter within the ecosystem; the model explains the role of producers, consumers, decomposers, and nonliving elements of the ecosystem in this process (DCI-LS2.A-E1, CCC-SYS-E2, SEP-MOD-E6); whether students use the model to explain either the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle or the nitrogen cycle in the chosen ecosystem (SEP-MOD-E6, DCI-2.B-E1); whether students use the model to explain how the living and nonliving things unique to the chosen ecosystem transfer matter through interactions (CCC-EM-E2, DCI-LS2.A-E1, SEP-MOD-E6)’ and whether students use the model to explain how changes to part of the ecosystem can change the ecosystem. (SEP-MOD-E6, CCC-SYS-E2). These assessments are three dimensional and assess the learning objective. The teacher materials provide no guidance for modifying instruction if students do not meet the objectives for this lesson. 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 3: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: Investigate: Interactions of Earth’s Systems, there is one learning objective: “model the interactions of Earth’s major systems.” This is a three-dimensional learning objective. Students are assessed with three Wrap It Up questions, a teacher rubric, and student self-assessment rubric. Students explain how their models demonstrate each system (DCI-ESS2.A-E1), how the plants interacted with the hydrosphere (CCC-SYS-E1), and use their model to identify that condensation and evaporation may occur. The teacher rubric assesses students on various components of the investigation, including how well they build a model to show Earth’s systems, how well they interact, how the parts affect the function of the systems, and the limitations of the model (DCI-ESS2.A-E1, CCC-SYS-E1; SEP-MOD-E1). These assessments collectively assess all three dimensions and the learning objectives. The teacher materials provide no guidance for modifying instruction if students do not meet the objectives for this lesson

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: Investigate: Gravity, there is one learning objective: “gather data to support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down.”  This is a three-dimensional learning objective. Students are assessed with two Wrap It Up questions, a teacher rubric, and a student self-assessment rubric. Students are asked to use evidence from their investigation to support an argument that the force of Earth’s gravity on an object is directed down (DCI-PS2.B-E1, SEP-ARG-E4, and CCC-CE-E1). The teacher rubric assesses students on various components of the investigation, including how well they identify the claim that gravity pulls objects to earth, make predictions, follow the experiment, and construct an argument (SEP-ARG-E4). These assessments collectively assess all three dimensions and the learning objectives. The teacher materials provide no guidance for modifying instruction if students do not meet the objectives for this lesson.

Indicator 1c

Materials are designed to elicit direct, observable evidence of the three-dimensional learning in the instructional materials.
0/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 5 do not meet expectations that they are designed to elicit direct, observable evidence of the three-dimensional learning in the instructional materials. Each unit consists of two or three lesson sequences that include bundles of performance expectations (PEs) as the objectives for each; therefore, all units had three-dimensional learning objectives. 

In some multiple choice questions, students use an image or diagram to respond to questions, but no questions within the Unit Test or ExamView bank were three dimensional. The SEPs and CCCs were not typically assessed. Other question types include fill-in-the-blank and matching questions; however, these also assessed only the targeted DCIs and often focused on vocabulary. Constructed response questions provide limited opportunities to assess two dimensions within the objectives. However, because teachers have the flexibility of selecting the items, not all students may answer the same questions.

The Unit Performance Task provides opportunities to assess student understanding and use of SEP and/or CCC elements; however, typically only one SEP and/or CCC per unit is assessed, missing opportunities to assess each element within the unit objectives. In addition, the unit assessments do not fully assess the ETS performance expectations.

Examples of units that have three-dimensional objectives; the summative assessment tasks do not assess student knowledge of all (three) dimensions in the learning objectives..

  • In Grade 5, Unit 1: Physical Science, the three-dimensional objectives include five performance expectations: 5-PS1-1, 5-PS1-2, 5-PS1-3, 5-PS1-4, and 3-5 ETS 1-2. The objectives are partially assessed by the two summative assessments in the unit, a Performance Task and a Unit Test. In Part I of the Performance Task, students observe a rock then use a key to determine the type of rock. In Part 2, students create their own key using objects in their classroom. There are missed opportunities in this assessment for students to explain why different properties can be used to identify a material. The Unit Test includes12 questions: eight multiple choice questions, three constructed response questions, and one question where students create a graph. Most of the items are one dimensional and assess the DCIs only. For example, in Questions 4 and 5, students answer questions about the mass of water and mass of ice, and the mass is conserved during state changes (DCI-PS1.B-E2). Questions 6-8 assess understanding of electrical conductors; however, this is not a targeted DCI in the learning objectives. One question assesses a crosscutting concept element; in Question 11, students use evidence to explain that mixing two substances causes a chemical change that results in a new substance (CCC-CE-E1). Multiple CCC, DCI, and SEP elements within the unit objectives are not assessed, and the ETS PE is not assessed by the summative assessments. 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 2: Physical Science, the three-dimensional objectives include four performance expectations: 5-LS1-1, 5-PS3-1, 5-LS2-1, 3–5-ETS1-1. The objectives are partially assessed by the two summative assessments in the unit, a Performance Task and a Unit Test. In the Performance Task, students design a video game that shows the impact of an invasive species on an ecosystem. The rubric assesses students on all three dimensions of 5-LS2-1 by asking students to describe characteristics of an invasive species, draw a model of an ecosystem, predict changes in the ecosystem based on the impact of the invasive species, show the flow of energy in the ecosystem, propose a solution to control the invasive species, and show the relationship between a decrease in the invasive species and other producers and consumers in the ecosystem and energy flow (SEP-MOD-E4, DCI-LS2.A-E1, CCC-SYS-E2). The Unit Test includes 14 items: nine multiple choice questions and five constructed response questions. These questions assess the DCIs for the learning objectives. Multiple CCC and SEP elements within the unit objectives are not assessed and the ETS PE is not assessed by the summative assessments. 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 3: Earth Science, the three-dimensional objectives include three performance expectations: 5-ESS2-1, 5-ESS2-2, 5-ESS3-1. The objectives are partially assessed by the two summative assessments in the unit, a Performance Task and a Unit Test. In the Performance Task, students select an item from the trash and research how it is made and used. Students draw  how the process of making, using, or recycling the material affects an earth system. Students describe and label their drawing and answer questions about their drawing. Students are assessed on eight criteria: 1) Students select an object that is usually discarded or recycled, and use reliable, valid sources to research how the object is made and used (SEP-INFO-E4). 2) Students draw a model that shows how making, using, or recycling the chosen object affects an earth system (DCI-ESS3.C-E1, CCC-CE-E1).  3) Students include captions, labels, and other descriptive elements in their drawings. 4) Students identify the effect illustrated in the drawing as positive or negative (DCI-ESS3.C-E1).  5) Students research upcycling ideas for the object (SEP-INFO-E4). 6) Students upcycle the object and describe the results. 7) Students evaluate the upcycled object and make suggestions for improvements.  8) Students revise their drawings to show how the upcycled object lessened the negative effect or increased the positive effect on the earth system (DCI-ESS3.C-E1, CCC-CE-E1) The Unit Test includes 15 items: nine multiple choice questions and six constructed response questions. Most of the items are one dimensional and assess the DCIs. Question 5, students answer, “Which systems interact to cause monsoons? (DCI-ESS2.A-E1). There is a missed opportunity for students to demonstrate understanding of the crosscutting concept of systems. Multiple CCC, DCI, and SEP elements within the unit objectives are not assessed. 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4: Earth Science, the three-dimensional objectives include four performance expectations: 5-PS 2-1, 5-ESS 1-1, 5 ESS 1-2, and 3-5-ETS1-3. The objectives are partially assessed by the two summative assessments in the unit, a Performance Task and a Unit Test. In the Performance Task, students read a passage about two sisters arguing if the sun is the biggest star (since it is the brightest) (DCI-ESS1.A-E1). Students identify the correct sister and what she is trying to prove, what evidence she would need to support her claim, and how she would research her claim. Students then gather data about stars to show their sizes and distance from earth. Students use their data to support the argument that the sun is not the biggest star despite its brightness (SEP-ARG-E4). The Unit Test includes 15 items: 11 multiple choice questions and four constructed response questions, one of which has students draw a diagram. All of the items meet only the DCIs or SEPs. In Question 1, students view pictures of two different moon phases and identify why they look different (DCI-ESS1.B-E1). In Question 4, students identify why the Northern and Southern hemispheres have opposite seasons (DCI-ESS1.B-E1). In Question 6, students identify that if the Earth and Sun were farther away they would not have the same gravitational attraction (DCI-PS2.B-E1). In Question 14, students explain how a student should set up a model to show the relationship between the sun’s energy and earth’s seasons (DCI-ESS1.B-E1, SEP-MOD-E3). Multiple CCC, DCI, and SEP elements within the unit objectives are not assessed.

Criterion 1d - 1i

Materials leverage science phenomena and engineering problems in the context of driving learning and student performance.
2/12
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Criterion Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 5 do not meet expectations for Criterion 1d-1i: Phenomena and Problems Drive Learning. The materials include phenomena in 1% of the lessons and problems in 3% of the lessons. Of the phenomena and problems present, some instances of connections to grade-level appropriate DCIs are made but not consistently. The phenomena and problems are not consistently presented to students as directly as possible. The materials elicit in some instances but do not leverage student prior knowledge and experience related to the phenomena and problems present. Phenomena or problems are neither consistently present nor do they drive learning and use of the three dimensions, at the lesson or the unit level.

Indicator 1d

Phenomena and/or problems are connected to grade-level Disciplinary Core Ideas.
1/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 5 partially meet expectations that phenomena and/or problems are connected to grade-level Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs). Problems and phenomena, when present in the materials, are not consistently connected to elements of appropriate grade-level DCIs. In some instances, problems and/or design challenges engage students in elements of the ETS DCIs but do not consistently connect learning to grade-level DCIs in life, physical, or earth and space science, or an associated element.

The identified phenomenon connects to grade-band appropriate DCIs. One of the three identified problems requires students to use grade-band appropriate DCIs to solve the design challenge or problem. In several cases students could complete the problems without using content knowledge. 

Examples of phenomena and problems that connect to grade-level DCIs or their elements:

  • In Grade 5, Unit 2: Life Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: STEM Engineering Project: Design Aquaponics, the problem is to design an aquaponics system to help provide food for a community. Students define the challenge, determine criteria and constraints, and conduct an investigation to determine which material would best wick water to the plants. Students design, build, and test their systems for three weeks. Students discuss improvements they could make and create a poster showing their design and labels for the materials used, including how nutrients move through the systems.(DCI-ETS1.A-E1). Within the lesson, the problem is used to help students understand that matter cycles between the air and soil and among plants, animals, and microbes as these organisms live and die. (DCI-LS2.B-E.1).

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4:Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Investigate: Sunlight and Shadows, the phenomenon is that shadows change shape with the movement of light. Students explore light and shadows with a flashlight. Students conduct an experiment to observe and collect data on the change or length and direction throughout the day. To explain the phenomena, students share their observations and data with other groups. Students discuss how and why the changes in shadows occur. Within the lesson, the phenomenon is used to help students understand that the rotation of Earth about an axis causes observable patterns including daily changes in the length and direction of shadows (DCI-ESS1.B-E1).

Examples of problems that do not connect to life, earth, or physical science grade-level DCIs or their elements:

  • In Grade 5, Unit 1: Physical Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: STEM Engineering Project: Design a Lunchbox, the challenge is to design a lunch box that must keep one bottle of water cold, keep a second bottle of water warm, and hold both bottles firmly in place. Students see a thermogram of a house with heat loss and an image of a hiker on  a snowy day with a hot beverage are asked to define the problem and identify the constraints and criteria. They test aluminum, fleece, and felt to see which keeps water the same temperature in a test, refining their lunchbox as they go. They share their designs with their peers and make improvements again (DCI-ETS1.C-E1). While they engage in an engineering design process, they do not need to utilize disciplinary core ideas, such as identifying properties of materials to complete the challenge. 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: STEM Space Station Project, the challenge is to design, build, and test a toy roller coaster that can work on earth, and then be modified to work in space. Students watch a video and see what certain toys look like in zero gravity. They are introduced to the problem, define the constraints and criteria for success, build their model roller coasters and engage in tests periodically to determine if their roller coaster meets the design specification (DCI-ETS1.B-E2). While they engage in an engineering design process, they do not need to utilize disciplinary core ideas to complete the challenge.

Indicator 1e

Phenomena and/or problems are presented to students as directly as possible.
0/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 5 do not meet expectations that phenomena and/or problems are presented to students as directly as possible. The one phenomenon is presented as directly as possible. None of the problems are presented in the most direct way possible; these are often presented through videos or pictures, even when opportunities for direct experiences are possible after safety and materials consideration. The materials provide suggestions on the use of videos to introduce problems to students; however not all videos are linked in the materials and therefore cannot be evaluated.

Example of the phenomenon presented to students as directly as possible:

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Investigate: Sunlight and Shadows, the phenomena is that shadows change shape with the movement of light. The phenomena is presented through a teacher-led demonstration of  creating shadows with flashlights in a dark room. The phenomenon is presented to students as directly as possible as all students have a first-hand experience and common entry point of observing the shadows created from the flashlight. 

Examples of problems not presented to students as directly as possible:

  • In Grade 5, Unit 1: Physical Science,  Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: STEM Engineering Project: Design a Lunchbox, the challenge is to design a lunch box that must keep one bottle of water cold, keep a second bottle of water warm, and hold both bottles firmly in place. The challenge is presented to students through a picture of a thermogram of a house that has a pattern of heat loss and an image of a hiker on a snowy day with a hot beverage. The image does not show steam rising from the cup.  The reading explains that the liquid is hot. 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 2: Life Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: STEM Engineering Project: Design Aquaponics, the problem is to design an aquaponics system to help provide food for a community. The problem is presented to students through a review of a prior lessons’ ecosystem pond model, a video of a snail eating algae, and a photo and text about aquaponics. While students read about the problem, they only see an incomplete image of an aquaponics system.

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: STEM Space Station Project, the challenge is to design, build, test a toy roller coaster that can work on earth.  Then modify it to work in space. The challenge is presented to students through a video explaining NASA’s International Toys in Space program and includes images of what certain toys look like in zero gravity. While the video provides a practical way for students to view toys in space, the challenge is not presented as directly as possible because students only read about an amusement park which does not provide a direct common experience.

Indicator 1f

Phenomena and/or problems drive individual lessons or activities using key elements of all three dimensions.
0/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 5 do not meet expectations that phenomena and/or problems drive individual lessons or activities using key elements of all three dimensions.

Across the grade, phenomena and problems are presented in four of the 95 lessons. In two lessons, a problem or phenomena drives the learning and students utilize all three dimensions to solve the problem. In one lesson, a problem drives the learning of the lesson, but students engage in one or two dimensions as they make sense of the phenomenon or solve the problem. The remaining three problems are addressed within the lesson, but do not drive the learning of the lesson.

In the remaining 91 lessons, questions related to science concepts or topics are often the focus of the learning instead of a driving phenomenon or problem. Additionally, students typically only engage in one or two dimensions within each lesson. Lessons focus on having students explain the concept or idea, build vocabulary, and/or answer a topical question.

Examples of lessons that did not use phenomena and/or problems to drive student learning:

  • In Grade 5, Unit 1: Physical Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Heating, students do not engage with a lesson-level phenomenon or problem. Instead, the focus of the learning is on the question, “How can matter such as water change when heated?” as students build understanding about melting and boiling point of matter. Students watch a video of liquid nitrogen being poured onto a room temperature surface. They reflect on examples of heating they have seen, preview text, and discuss what they think is happening in the images as they complete the anticipation guide. Throughout the lesson, students define key terms from the text and learn that when water boils, the amount of water is conserved as it transfers from one state of matter to another (DCI-PS1.A-E2). They learn about the three scales for measurement for temperature (CCC-SPQ-E2). 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 1: Physical Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Investigate Chemical Reactions, students do not engage with a lesson-level phenomenon or problem. Instead, the focus of the learning is on the topic of chemical change. Students see an antacid dropped in water and are asked what is happening. They then repeat the experiments themselves in a guided experiment and explain how they knew a new substance formed (DCI-PS1.B-E1). They discuss potential errors in the experiment and how it could have impacted the results and repeat the experiment to confirm results (SEP-INV-E2). They explain how their findings supported the law of conservation of matter and work in partner pairs to determine cause and effect relationships evident from the investigation (CCC-CE-E1). 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 2: Life Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Tallgrass Prairie Ecosystem, students do not engage with lesson-level phenomenon or problems. Instead, the focus of the learning is on the topic of ecosystems. Students explain that organisms can survive only in environments in which their particular needs are met. Students read text and answer questions about the importance of living and nonliving things in an ecosystem. They watch an animation and learn the components of ecosystems, how ecosystems are classified, and roles organisms play in ecosystems. Students answer questions about how the needs of organisms that live in a tallgrass prairie environment are met and how organisms only survive where their needs are met (DCI-LS2.B-E1). Students explain the relationships and interactions between living and nonliving things in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem (CCC-SYS-E2). 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 3: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: Earth’s Major Systems, students do not engage with lesson-level phenomenon or problems. Instead, the focus of the learning is on the question, “What are Earth’s major systems and how do they interact?”  Students are shown a rock, a filled balloon, a cup of water, and a houseplant and are asked which of Earth’s systems each one represents. They preview the reading and read with the focus of asking what are Earth’s major systems and how they interact (DCI-ESS2.A-E1). They describe how various systems interact. Students engage in a jigsaw where they identify various aspects of one of Earth’s systems, focusing on some of the specific pieces of it (CCC-SYS-E2). 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 3: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: Protecting Land, Air, and Water, students do not engage with lesson-level phenomenon or problems. Instead, the focus of the learning is on the question, “What is the importance of conserving Earth’s resources and what are some conservation methods?” as students explain and describe the importance of conserving Earth’s resources and analyze products to determine which are least harmful to the Earth. Students preview the text and then read with a focus on conservation methods and why conservation is important. They define conservation and identify methods of conservation (DCI-ESS2.C-E1). In the Science in a Snap, students collect, review, and discuss recycling codes on various materials. They identify a local issue of concern for them and explain how it impacts an Earth system and a conservation method they can undertake (CCC-SYS-E2). 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 3: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 3, Lesson: STEM Research Project: Energize, students do not engage with a lesson-level phenomenon or problem. Instead, the focus of the learning is on the topics of wind and solar energy. Students see an image of a solar farm and theorize why it has so many panels. They discuss where good places for wind farms might be (DCI-ESS2.C-E1). Students research a wind and solar energy product: explain how it works, where and how it is manufactured, its costs, the benefits and drawbacks, and provide two interesting facts about it. They obtain and combine resources to communicate their scientific information (SEP-INFO-E5). Students are encouraged to link their knowledge of systems and system models and think about how their products relate (CCC-SYS-E2). Throughout the lesson students use all three dimensions to engage in the research project. 

Example where a problem drives individual lessons, but does not use all three dimensions:

  • In Grade 5, Unit 1: Physical Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: STEM Engineering Project: Design a Lunchbox, the challenge is to design a lunch box that must keep one bottle of water cold, one bottle warm, and holds both bottles in place. Students read about examples of thermograms, including a house with heat loss and a hiker on a snowy day with a beverage. They identify the problem, criteria, and constraints (DCI-ETS1.A-E1). Students choose from selected materials to insulate the water bottles and design a fair test (SEP-ADP-E5). Students test their solutions and record the results in a graph and table (SEP-DATA-E1). Then present their solutions to determine which design best meets the criteria and respond to several questions, including the scale of measurement used in the challenge (CCC-SPQ-E2; SEP-INV-E2). Students do not engage in a life, earth, or physical science DCI or associated element as they complete this challenge. 

Examples of phenomena and problems that drive student learning at the lesson or activity level using the three dimensions:

  • In Grade 5, Unit 2: Life Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: STEM Engineering Project: Design an Aquaponics System, the problem is to design an aquaponics system to help provide food for a community. Students read text, define aquaponics, and use their understanding of ecosystems and their interactions to build an aquaponics system (DCI-LS2.A-E1, DCI-LS2.B-E1). Throughout the lesson sequence students are guided through the design cycle and discuss  improvements to their aquaponics system and create a poster to show how water and nutrients flow through their system (SEP-MOD-E4, CCC-SYS-E2). Creating the poster helps students understand that matter cycles between the air and soil and among plants, animals, and microbes as these organisms live and die. 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Investigate Sunlight and Shadows, the phenomenon is that shadows change shape with the movement of light. Students observe that shadows change as the flashlight moves, create and record data on pencil’s shadow at different times of the day, and determine how angle of the sun affects shadows and predict shadow length (SEP-MOD-E4, DCI-ESS1.B-E1). Students use their data table to graph the shadow lengths and describe the patterns they observed to predict what tomorrow’s shadows might look like (SEP-DATA-E1, CCC-PAT-E2).

Indicator 1g

Materials are designed to include both phenomena and problems.
Narrative Evidence Only
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 5 are designed for students to solve problems in 3% (3/95) of the lessons. Throughout the materials 1% (1/95) of the lessons focus on explaining phenomena. The Grade 5 materials consist of four units each composed of 20 to 29 lessons.

In the materials, problems and design challenges are presented in the STEM activities and typically introduced in the Engage portion of the lesson. These activities typically provide students with a design challenge where they discuss their ideas with a partner, draw a model of their ideas, and then build, test and share their solutions. Frequently, students test and refine their solutions. At times, the materials provide very detailed design instructions and other times allow students to work through the design process to develop their own ideas. 

Of the four units in Grade 5, none contain a unit-level problem or phenomenon. In one instance, students engage with a lesson-level phenomenon. 

Examples of problems in the series:

  • In Grade 5, Unit 1: Physical Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: STEM Engineering Project: Design a Lunchbox, the challenge is to design a lunch box that must keep one bottle of water cold, keep a second bottle of water warm, and hold both bottles firmly in place. Throughout the lesson, students use photographs to ask and answer questions about the kinds of insulation in the pictures. Then they define the problem, determine criteria and constraints, and plan an investigation to determine which materials will make the best insulator. To complete this challenge, students design their lunch box, build, test, and revise their prototypes. 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 2: Life Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: STEM Engineering Project: Design Aquaponics, the problem is to design an aquaponics system to help provide food for a community. Throughout the lesson, students design a system that has two compartments—one for plants and one for aquatic organisms—uses a wick to move water to the plants, and must keep the plants and the aquatic organisms alive for at least three weeks. To solve the problem, students build and test their models, collect data, identify which materials work best, and share their findings with the class. 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: STEM Space Station Project, the challenge is to design, build, and test a toy roller coaster that can work on earth, and then modify it to work in space. Students identify criteria and constraints. They research how other toys work on earth and in space and use available materials to build their roller coaster. To complete the challenge, students create a presentation and discuss their evidence for meeting the criteria and constraints using evidence to support their claims.

Examples of phenomena in the series:

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Investigate: Sunlight and Shadows, the phenomenon is that shadows change shape with the movement of light. Throughout the lesson, students investigate how shadows change in length depending on the location of the sun, create graphs of shadow lengths based on time of day, and watch a video of a sundial with changing shadow lengths. To explain the phenomena, students share their observations and data and discuss how and why the changes in shadows occur.

Indicator 1h

Materials intentionally leverage students’ prior knowledge and experiences related to phenomena or problems.
1/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 5 partially meet expectations that they intentionally leverage students’ prior knowledge and experiences related to phenomena or problems. Four lessons in Grade 5 engage students in figuring out phenomena or solving design problems. The one phenomenon elicits students prior knowledge but does not leverage this knowledge to support the construction of an explanation. In addition, one of the challenges elicit students prior knowledge but do not leverage this knowledge to support students to complete the challenge. When the materials do elicit students’ prior knowledge or experience related to phenomena or problems, the materials provide little guidance for teachers to use this information beyond looking for misconceptions. There are missed opportunities for the materials to leverage students’ prior knowledge or experiences.

Examples where the materials elicit, but do not leverage students’ prior knowledge and experiences related to phenomena or problems:

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: Investigate: Sunlight and Shadows, the phenomenon is that shadows change shape with the movement of light. Students are asked to describe how shadows are produced and what they have noticed about shadow length in the past. However, there is a missed opportunity to leverage student prior knowledge and experience of the phenomenon.

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: STEM Space Station Project, the challenge is to design, build, and test a toy roller coaster that can work on Earth, and then modify it to work in space. Students are asked to talk to a partner about what they know about how roller coasters work and make connections with roller coasters through first-hand experiences, videos, or readings. However, there is a missed opportunity to leverage student prior knowledge and experience of the challenge.

Examples where materials do not elicit or leverage students’ prior knowledge and experience related to problems:

  • In Grade 5, Unit 1: Physical Science, Lesson Sequence 1, Lesson: STEM Engineering Project: Design a Lunchbox, the challenge is to design a lunch box that must keep one bottle of water cold, keep a second bottle of water warm, and hold both bottles firmly in place. Students are shown photographs and are asked to generate questions and answers about insulation in the thermos keeping the cocoa warm; however, students do not have the opportunity to share any prior experiences related to insulation before designing their own lunchbox. 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 2: Life Science, Lesson Sequence 2, Lesson: STEM Engineering Project: Design Aquaponics, the problem is to design an aquaponics system to help provide food for a community. Students are asked questions related to plants/animals and their nitrogen requirements including, “Where do plants get the Nitrogen they need to grow?”;  “Where do animals get the Nitrogen they need?”;  “What happens to the nitrogen when plants and animals die?” While the instructional materials provide one opportunity at the end of the lesson for students to revisit their initial thinking, student knowledge of aquaponics is not elicited throughout the lesson sequence.

Indicator 1i

Materials embed phenomena or problems across multiple lessons for students to use and build knowledge of all three dimensions.
0/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 5 do not meet expectations that they embed phenomena or problems across multiple lessons for students to use and build knowledge of all three dimensions. While some phenomena and problems in the grade drive learning of individual lessons or activities, they do not drive learning across multiple lessons in a lesson sequence or across the unit. 

None of the nine lesson sequences have problems or phenomena that drive learning across multiple lessons. All of the nine lesson sequences engage students with all three dimensions. None of the nine lesson sequences have opportunities for students to develop, evaluate, and revise their thinking as they figure out phenomena and define/solve problems. The four units in grade 5 do not have an anchoring phenomena but are instead set up by topical strands such as Physical, Life, and Earth science. 

Examples of a lesson sequence where student learning is not driven by a phenomenon or problem across multiple lessons, but the materials engage students with all three dimensions: 

  • In Grade 5 Unit 1:Physical Science,  Lesson Sequence 1, a phenomenon or problem does not drive student learning across multiple lessons. Instead, the focus of the learning is on the topic of properties of matter. Throughout the lesson sequence, students learn about the phases of matter and properties of matter. In the first two lessons in the lesson sequence, students learn that matter is made of particles and the states of matter (DCI-PS1.A-E1). In the next two lessons students perform a demonstration and make observations to answer the question: “How can you detect materials that have dissolved in water? (DCI-PS1.A-E1). Students then develop a model to represent that matter is made of particles (DCI-PS1.A-E1, SEP-MOD-P3) and identify other things, besides particles, that are too small to see (CCC-SPQ-E1, DCI-PS1.A-E3). In the seventh and eighth lesson in the lesson sequence, students learn about hardness, test, and determine a material’s hardness, record data, and draw conclusions on the hardness of minerals from softest to hardest (SEP-INV-P4, DCI-PS1.A-E3, and CCC-SPQ-P1). Students learn about the property of magnetism and electrical conductivity, conduct an investigation to test which materials conduct electricity, and use their observations to identify which materials are insulators or conductors (DCI-PS1.A-E3). Students learn about thermal conductivity and the terms solution and solubility as they predict, test and observe what happens to different materials dropped in water (DCI-PS1.A-E3, SEP-DATA-P4). 

  • In Grade 5,  Unit 1: Physical Science,  Lesson Sequence 2,  a phenomenon or problem does not drive student learning across multiple lessons. Instead, the focus of the learning is on the topic of conservation of matter. Throughout the lesson sequence, students learn about physical changes of matter, including mixtures and substances, and then about chemical changes and reactions. In the first two lessons in the lesson sequence, students dive further into heat and cooling to change states (DCI-PS1.A-E2). In the third lesson, students engage with an engineering project related to thermal insulation as they design a lunchbox meant to keep the physical states of matter constant and make changes based on peer feedback (SEP-AQDP-E5, SEP-INV-E1, SEP-DATA-E1, SEP-CEDS-E5, and CCC-SPQ-E2). In the fourth through sixth lessons in the lesson sequence, students perform various investigations to show matter is conserved in physical changes (DCI-PS1.A-E2, SEP-MATH-E3, CCC-SPQ-E2, SEP-INV-E1, and SEP-DATA-E1). In the seventh through tenth lessons in the lesson sequence,  students learn about chemical changes, conduct investigations with chemical reactions to confirm the total mass has not changed, plan and conduct an investigation to identify the white powder, and use the information to identify the unknown materials (DCI-PS1.B-E2, SEP-CEDS-E2, CCC-CE-E1, SEP-INV-E1, SEP-DATA-E1, SEP-ARG-E4, and DCI-PS1.A-E3). 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 2: Life Science, Lesson Sequence 1, a phenomenon or problem does not drive student learning across multiple lessons. Instead, the focus of the learning is on the topic of plants' needs in terms of matter and energy. Throughout this lesson sequence, students extend their learning on what plants need to survive and grow. In the first three lessons, students identify what plants need to grow, how photosynthesis works, and explain that plants get the materials they need for growth from air and water (DCI-LS1.C-E2, CCC-EM-E2). In Think Like An Engineer, students learn about the hydroponic system as a solution for growing crops in areas that do not have good soil (DCI-LS1.C-E2). In Think Like A Scientist, students collect evidence from previous lessons and investigations about the materials that plants need to grow, compare their evidence, and construct an argument about where plants get the material they need to grow (DCI-LS1.C-E2, SEP-ARG-E4). Lastly, students discuss the connection between energy, food, and growth (DCI-LS1.C-E1). 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 2: Life Science Lesson Sequence 2, a phenomenon or problem does not drive student learning across multiple lessons. Instead, the focus of the learning is on the topics of ecosystems, food webs, chains, and cycles of matter. In Think Like a Scientist, students compare and contrast a pond food chain with a rainforest food chain to discover and discuss that the pathway of energy begins with the sun energy is transferred in different forms within a food chain (SEP-MOD-E4, DCI-PS3.D-E2, DCI-LS1.C-E1, CCC-EM-E3). In Desert Food Web, students learn about food webs, complete a virtual lab to identify and determine relationships between producers and consumers and describe energy transfer in different trophic levels (DCI-LS2.A-E, CCC-SYS-E2). In Decomposers, students learn about the types of decomposers and the role of decomposers in the cycles of matter and discuss how decomposers interact with other organisms in an ecosystem (DCI-LS2.B-E1, CCC-SYS-E2). In Cycles of Matter, students draw a cartoon explaining how animals obtain and release matter into the environment and  answer questions related to the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle and the nitrogen cycle (DCI-LS2.B-E1). In the second Think Like A Scientist lesson, students create either a model of the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle or the nitrogen cycle using the organisms in an ecosystem and  demonstrate how matter moves throughout the entire system by showing the relationship between the nonliving characteristics of the ecosystem as well as the interactions between plants, animals, and decomposers (SEP-MOD-E4, DCI-LS2.B-E.1, and CCC-SYS-E2). In the STEM Engineering Project, students use their understanding of ecosystems and their interactions to build an aquaponics system, create a poster to show how water and nutrients move through their system, and use data to improve their designs (DCI-LS2.A-E1, DCI-LS2.B-E1, SEP-MOD-E4, and CCC-SYS-E2).

  • In Grade 5, Unit 3:Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 1, a phenomenon or problem does not drive student learning across multiple lessons. Instead, the focus of the learning is on the topic of the four earth systems. Students read about each of earth’s systems, describing each system and how they interact (DCI-ESS2.A-E1, CCC-SYS-E2). Students build a terrarium, observe their terrarium, collect data and  answer questions about how systems interact (SEP-MOD-P3, DCI-ESS2.A-E1,  CCC-CE-E1). 

  • In Grade 5, Unit 3: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 2,  a phenomenon or problem does not drive student learning across multiple lessons. Instead, the focus of the learning is on the topic of the hydrosphere. Throughout the lesson sequence, students focus on the interactions between the hydrosphere and the geosphere. Students read about and make inferences about ocean ecosystems, how organisms interact, and discuss how the hydrosphere can impact other systems through processes like erosion (DCI-ESS2.A-E, CCC-CE-E2). Students learn the effects of weather and climate in the US and how systems interact with each other and develop an explanatory model to describe an interaction between two of earth’s spheres (SEP-MOD-E3, CCC-SYS-E2, DCI-ESS2.A-E1).

  • In Grade 5, Unit 3: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 3, a phenomenon or problem does not drive student learning across multiple lessons. Instead, the focus of the learning is on the topic of human impact on the environment. Throughout the lesson sequence, students learn how human activities impact earth's systems as they classify natural resources as renewable or non-renewable,  describe how humans impact the land, and explain how agriculture impacts the land  (DCI-ESS3.C-E1). Students learn how pollution impacts the biosphere, types of pollution  and the effects of pollution on the earth’s systems (CCC-SYS-E2). Students describe human activities connected with water, air, and space and how the activities impact natural resources, select a resource to research, obtain and combine information and communicate scientific knowledge (DCI-ESS2.C-E1, SEP-INFO-E5).  Students link their knowledge of systems and system models as they discuss the impact of their resources on other systems (CCC-SYS-E2).

  • In Grade 5 Unit 4: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 2, a phenomenon or problem does not drive student learning across multiple lessons. Instead, the focus of the learning is the topic of the brightness of the sun and other stars. In the second sequence of lessons, students observe patterns of daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky. In Our Star - The Sun, students complete an activity to understand the size of an object appears to differ when it is viewed from different distances (DCI-ESS1.A-E1). In Investigate: Apparent Brightness, students make predictions about the apparent brightness of penlights for each distance, conduct an investigation and use their evidence to support an argument that the brightness of stars depends on their distances from earth (DCI-ESS1.A-E.1, SEP-ARG-E4). In Investigate: Sunlight and Shadows, students observe how the changing angle between the sun and their location on earth’s surface affects shadows caused by sunlight and discuss the patterns of shadows they observed throughout the day (DCI-ESS1.B-E.1, CCC-PAT-E1). In Investigate: Graph Hours of Daylight, students plot data on a graph to reveal patterns of the average number of daylight hours in Chicago, Illinois, during a year (DCI-ESS1.B-E.1, SEP-DATA-E1). In Think Like a Scientist, students create a graphical display that shows the changing position of their selected constellation in the night sky for three seasons and use their displays to describe the pattern of the appearance of stars in the sky (DCI-ESS1.B-E1, SEP-DATA-E1, CCC-PAT-E1). In Investigate: Moon Phases, students record observations on the phases of the moon, analyze their data and use patterns to explain how the moon’s observable appearance changes over time (DCI-ESS1.B-E.1, CCC-PAT-P1).  

  • In Grade 5, Unit 4: Earth Science, Lesson Sequence 1, a phenomenon or problem does not drive student learning across multiple lessons. Instead, the focus of the learning is on the topic of gravitational force. In Gravity on Earth, students learn about gravity and the concept of “down” as they view a video on gravitational force and learn how the force of earth’s gravity affects objects on or near it (DCI-PS2.B-E3). In Investigate:Gravity, students discuss the cause and effect relationships of gravity and falling objects and explain that all objects in the investigation fell “down”  (CCC-CE-E1, SEP-ARG-E4). In the STEM: Engineering Project, students design a toy roller coaster that can work on earth and in microgravity and use evidence from their design to argue how their designs would work in microgravity (SEP-ARG-E4, CCC-CE-E1).

Gateway Two

Coherence and Scope

Not Rated

Criterion 2a - 2g

Materials are coherent in design, scientifically accurate, and support grade-level and grade-band endpoints of all three dimensions.

Indicator 2a

Materials are designed for students to build and connect their knowledge and use of the three dimensions across the series.
N/A

Indicator 2a.i

Students understand how the materials connect the dimensions from unit to unit.
N/A

Indicator 2a.ii

Materials have an intentional sequence where student tasks increase in sophistication.
N/A

Indicator 2b

Materials present Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI), Science and Engineering Practices (SEP), and Crosscutting Concepts (CCC) in a way that is scientifically accurate.*
N/A

Indicator 2c

Materials do not inappropriately include scientific content and ideas outside of the grade-level Disciplinary Core Ideas.*
N/A

Indicator 2d

Materials incorporate all grade-level Disciplinary Core Ideas.
N/A

Indicator 2d.i

Physical Sciences
N/A

Indicator 2d.ii

Life Sciences
N/A

Indicator 2d.iii

Earth and Space Sciences
N/A

Indicator 2d.iv

Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science
N/A

Indicator 2e

Materials incorporate all grade-band Science and Engineering Practices.
N/A

Indicator 2e.i

Materials incorporate grade-level appropriate SEPs within each grade.
N/A

Indicator 2e.ii

Materials incorporate all SEPs across the grade band.
N/A

Indicator 2f

Materials incorporate all grade-band Crosscutting Concepts.
N/A

Indicator 2f.i

Materials incorporate grade-level appropriate CCCs within each grade.
N/A

Indicator 2f.ii

Materials incorporate all CCCs across the grade band.
N/A

Indicator 2g

Materials incorporate NGSS Connections to Nature of Science and Engineering
N/A

Gateway Three

Usability

Not Rated

Criterion 3a - 3d

Materials are designed to support teachers not only in using the materials, but also in understanding the expectations of the standards.

Indicator 3a

Materials include background information to help teachers support students in using the three dimensions to explain phenomena and solve problems (also see indicators 3b and 3l).
N/A

Indicator 3b

Materials provide guidance that supports teachers in planning and providing effective learning experiences to engage students in figuring out phenomena and solving problems.
N/A

Indicator 3c

Materials contain teacher guidance with sufficient and useful annotations and suggestions for how to enact the student materials and ancillary materials. Where applicable, materials include teacher guidance for the use of embedded technology to support and enhance student learning.
N/A

Indicator 3d

Materials contain explanations of the instructional approaches of the program and identification of the research-based strategies.
N/A

Criterion 3e - 3k

Materials are designed to support all students in learning.

Indicator 3e

Materials are designed to leverage diverse cultural and social backgrounds of students.
N/A

Indicator 3f

Materials provide appropriate support, accommodations, and/or modifications for numerous special populations that will support their regular and active participation in learning science and engineering.
N/A

Indicator 3g

Materials provide multiple access points for students at varying ability levels and backgrounds to make sense of phenomena and design solutions to problems.
N/A

Indicator 3h

Materials include opportunities for students to share their thinking and apply their understanding in a variety of ways.
N/A

Indicator 3i

Materials include a balance of images or information about people, representing various demographic and physical characteristics.
N/A

Indicator 3j

Materials provide opportunities for teachers to use a variety of grouping strategies.
N/A

Indicator 3k

Materials are made accessible to students by providing appropriate supports for different reading levels.
N/A

Criterion 3l - 3s

Materials are designed to be usable and also to support teachers in using the materials and understanding how the materials are designed.

Indicator 3l

The teacher materials provide a rationale for how units across the series are intentionally sequenced to build coherence and student understanding.
N/A

Indicator 3m

Materials document how each lesson and unit align to NGSS.
N/A

Indicator 3n

Materials document how each lesson and unit align to English/Language Arts and Math Common Core State Standards, including the standards for mathematical practice.
N/A

Indicator 3n.i

Materials document how each lesson and unit align to English/Language Arts Common Core State Standards.
N/A

Indicator 3n.ii

Materials document how each lesson and unit align to Math Common Core State Standards, including the standards for mathematical practice.
N/A

Indicator 3o

Resources (whether in print or digital) are clear and free of errors.
N/A

Indicator 3p

Materials include a comprehensive list of materials needed.
N/A

Indicator 3q

Materials embed clear science safety guidelines for teacher and students across the instructional materials.
N/A

Indicator 3r

Materials designated for each grade level are feasible and flexible for one school year.
N/A

Indicator 3s

Materials contain strategies for informing students, parents, or caregivers about the science program and suggestions for how they can help support student progress and achievement.
N/A

Criterion 3t - 3y

Materials are designed to assess students and support the interpretation of the assessment results.

Indicator 3t

Assessments include a variety of modalities and measures.
N/A

Indicator 3u

Assessments offer ways for individual student progress to be measured over time.
N/A

Indicator 3v

Materials provide opportunities and guidance for oral and/or written peer and teacher feedback and self reflection, allowing students to monitor and move their own learning.
N/A

Indicator 3w

Tools are provided for scoring assessment items (e.g., sample student responses, rubrics, scoring guidelines, and open-ended feedback).
N/A

Indicator 3x

Guidance is provided for interpreting the range of student understanding (e.g., determining what high and low scores mean for students) for relevant Science and Engineering Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Disciplinary Core Ideas.
N/A

Indicator 3y

Assessments are accessible to diverse learners regardless of gender identification, language, learning exceptionality, race/ethnicity, or socioeconomic status.
N/A

Criterion 3aa - 3z

Materials are designed to include and support the use of digital technologies.

Indicator 3aa

Digital materials are web based and compatible with multiple internet browsers. In addition, materials are “platform neutral,” are compatible with multiple operating systems and allow the use of tablets and mobile devices.
N/A

Indicator 3ab

Materials include opportunities to assess three-dimensional learning using digital technology.
N/A

Indicator 3ac

Materials can be customized for individual learners, using adaptive or other technological innovations.
N/A

Indicator 3ad

Materials include or reference digital technology that provides opportunities for teachers and/or students to collaborate with each other (e.g., websites, discussion groups, webinars, etc.).
N/A

Indicator 3z

Materials integrate digital technology and interactive tools (data collection tools, simulations, modeling), when appropriate, in ways that support student engagement in the three dimensions of science.
N/A
abc123

Report Published Date: 2021/04/15

Report Edition: 2019

Title ISBN Edition Publisher Year
Exploring Science 5: Student Book 9781337911672
Exploring Science 5: Teacher's Edition 9781337915663

Please note: Reports published beginning in 2021 will be using version 1.5 of our review tools. Version 1 of our review tools can be found here. Learn more about this change.

Science K-5 Review Tool

The science review criteria identifies the indicators for high-quality instructional materials. The review criteria supports a sequential review process that reflects the importance of alignment to the standards then considers other high-quality attributes of curriculum as recommended by educators.

For science, our review criteria evaluates materials based on:

  • Three-Dimensional Learning

  • Phenomena and Problems Drive Learning

  • Coherence and Full Scope of the Three Dimensions

  • Design to Facilitate Teacher Learning

  • Instructional Supports and Usability

The Evidence Guides complement the review criteria by elaborating details for each indicator including the purpose of the indicator, information on how to collect evidence, guiding questions and discussion prompts, and scoring criteria.

To best read our reports we recommend utilizing the Codes for NGSS Elements document that provides the code and description of elements cited as evidence in each report.

The EdReports rubric supports a sequential review process through three gateways. These gateways reflect the importance of alignment to college and career ready standards and considers other attributes of high-quality curriculum, such as usability and design, as recommended by educators.

Materials must meet or partially meet expectations for the first set of indicators (gateway 1) to move to the other gateways. 

Gateways 1 and 2 focus on questions of alignment to the standards. Are the instructional materials aligned to the standards? Are all standards present and treated with appropriate depth and quality required to support student learning?

Gateway 3 focuses on the question of usability. Are the instructional materials user-friendly for students and educators? Materials must be well designed to facilitate student learning and enhance a teacher’s ability to differentiate and build knowledge within the classroom. 

In order to be reviewed and attain a rating for usability (Gateway 3), the instructional materials must first meet expectations for alignment (Gateways 1 and 2).

Alignment and usability ratings are assigned based on how materials score on a series of criteria and indicators with reviewers providing supporting evidence to determine and substantiate each point awarded.

Alignment and usability ratings are assigned based on how materials score on a series of criteria and indicators with reviewers providing supporting evidence to determine and substantiate each point awarded.

For ELA and math, alignment ratings represent the degree to which materials meet expectations, partially meet expectations, or do not meet expectations for alignment to college- and career-ready standards, including that all standards are present and treated with the appropriate depth to support students in learning the skills and knowledge that they need to be ready for college and career.

For science, alignment ratings represent the degree to which materials meet expectations, partially meet expectations, or do not meet expectations for alignment to the Next Generation Science Standards, including that all standards are present and treated with the appropriate depth to support students in learning the skills and knowledge that they need to be ready for college and career.

For all content areas, usability ratings represent the degree to which materials meet expectations, partially meet expectations, or do not meet expectations for effective practices (as outlined in the evaluation tool) for use and design, teacher planning and learning, assessment, differentiated instruction, and effective technology use.

Math K-8

  • Focus and Coherence - 14 possible points

    • 12-14 points: Meets Expectations

    • 8-11 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 8 points: Does Not Meet Expectations

  • Rigor and Mathematical Practices - 18 possible points

    • 16-18 points: Meets Expectations

    • 11-15 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 11 points: Does Not Meet Expectations

  • Instructional Supports and Usability - 38 possible points

    • 31-38 points: Meets Expectations

    • 23-30 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 23: Does Not Meet Expectations

Math High School

  • Focus and Coherence - 18 possible points

    • 14-18 points: Meets Expectations

    • 10-13 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 10 points: Does Not Meet Expectations

  • Rigor and Mathematical Practices - 16 possible points

    • 14-16 points: Meets Expectations

    • 10-13 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 10 points: Does Not Meet Expectations

  • Instructional Supports and Usability - 36 possible points

    • 30-36 points: Meets Expectations

    • 22-29 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 22: Does Not Meet Expectations

ELA K-2

  • Text Complexity and Quality - 58 possible points

    • 52-58 points: Meets Expectations

    • 28-51 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 28 points: Does Not Meet Expectations

  • Building Knowledge with Texts, Vocabulary, and Tasks - 32 possible points

    • 28-32 points: Meet Expectations

    • 16-27 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 16 points: Does Not Meet Expectations

  • Instructional Supports and Usability - 34 possible points

    • 30-34 points: Meets Expectations

    • 24-29 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 24 points: Does Not Meet Expectations

ELA 3-5

  • Text Complexity and Quality - 42 possible points

    • 37-42 points: Meets Expectations

    • 21-36 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 21 points: Does Not Meet Expectations

  • Building Knowledge with Texts, Vocabulary, and Tasks - 32 possible points

    • 28-32 points: Meet Expectations

    • 16-27 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 16 points: Does Not Meet Expectations

  • Instructional Supports and Usability - 34 possible points

    • 30-34 points: Meets Expectations

    • 24-29 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 24 points: Does Not Meet Expectations

ELA 6-8

  • Text Complexity and Quality - 36 possible points

    • 32-36 points: Meets Expectations

    • 18-31 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 18 points: Does Not Meet Expectations

  • Building Knowledge with Texts, Vocabulary, and Tasks - 32 possible points

    • 28-32 points: Meet Expectations

    • 16-27 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 16 points: Does Not Meet Expectations

  • Instructional Supports and Usability - 34 possible points

    • 30-34 points: Meets Expectations

    • 24-29 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 24 points: Does Not Meet Expectations


ELA High School

  • Text Complexity and Quality - 32 possible points

    • 28-32 points: Meets Expectations

    • 16-27 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 16 points: Does Not Meet Expectations

  • Building Knowledge with Texts, Vocabulary, and Tasks - 32 possible points

    • 28-32 points: Meet Expectations

    • 16-27 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 16 points: Does Not Meet Expectations

  • Instructional Supports and Usability - 34 possible points

    • 30-34 points: Meets Expectations

    • 24-29 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 24 points: Does Not Meet Expectations

Science Middle School

  • Designed for NGSS - 26 possible points

    • 22-26 points: Meets Expectations

    • 13-21 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 13 points: Does Not Meet Expectations


  • Coherence and Scope - 56 possible points

    • 48-56 points: Meets Expectations

    • 30-47 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 30 points: Does Not Meet Expectations


  • Instructional Supports and Usability - 54 possible points

    • 46-54 points: Meets Expectations

    • 29-45 points: Partially Meets Expectations

    • Below 29 points: Does Not Meet Expectations