Alignment to College and Career Ready Standards: Overall Summary

Bookworms Grade 2 instructional materials partially meet expectations of alignment to the standards. Texts included with the materials are rich and rigorous, offering students a balance of informational and literary reading over the course of the school year. Materials provide many opportunities for students to complete questions and tasks in reading, writing, speaking, and listening that are grounded in evidence, and support for students' developing literacy skills in foundational areas is explicit and comprehensive, providing teacher guidance and targeted instruction. Texts are organized to support students' building knowledge of different topics, and sets of text-dependent questions and tasks provide opportunities for students to analyze ideas within and across texts. The materials do not include process writing instruction and a progression of writing skills, a progression of focused shared research and writing projects, nor is there full support for students' independent reading.

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Understanding Gateways

Alignment

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Partially Meets Expectations

Gateway 1:

Text Quality

0
27
52
58
55
52-58
Meets Expectations
28-51
Partially Meets Expectations
0-27
Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway 2:

Building Knowledge

0
15
28
32
22
28-32
Meets Expectations
16-27
Partially Meets Expectations
0-15
Does Not Meet Expectations

Usability

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Not Rated

Not Rated

Gateway 3:

Usability

0
23
30
34
0
30-34
Meets Expectations
24-29
Partially Meets Expectations
0-23
Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway One

Text Quality & Complexity and Alignment to Standards Components

Meets Expectations

+
-
Gateway One Details

The instructional materials for Grade 2 meet the expectations of Gateway 1. Included texts are rich and rigorous, offering students a balance of informational and literary reading over the course of the school year. Materials provide many opportunities for students to complete questions and tasks in reading, writing, speaking, and listening that are grounded in evidence. Support for students' developing literacy skills in foundational areas is explicit and comprehensive, providing teacher guidance and targeted instruction.

Criterion 1a - 1f

Texts are worthy of students' time and attention: texts are of quality and are rigorous, meeting the text complexity criteria for each grade. Materials support students' advancing toward independent reading.
19/20

Indicator 1a

Anchor texts (including read-aloud texts in K-2 and shared reading texts in Grade 2 used to build knowledge and vocabulary) are of publishable quality and worthy of especially careful reading/listening and consider a range of student interests.
4/4
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the expectations that anchor texts (including read aloud texts in K-2 and shared reading texts in Grade 2 used to build knowledge and vocabulary) are of publishable quality and worthy of especially careful reading/listening and consider a range of student interests. An array of topics and themes divided into four nine week units are covered and lend themselves to opportunities for integration across content areas. The materials are of high quality with text rich in language, engaging, grade-level appropriate, and relevant. It is used to expand big ideas, build academic vocabulary, and facilitates access to future texts. In addition, the texts cover a range of genres such as folktales, fairytales, legends, fantasies, poetry, science, mysteries, biographies,adventures, humorous texts, and historical texts.

Quality literature texts in the materials reviewed include:

  • In the First Nine Weeks, students interact with the text The Girl Who Loved Wild Horses by Paul Goble, is a Caldecott Award winning book contains simple text and engaging illustrations about a Native American Girl devoted the the care of her tribe’s horses.
  • In the Second Nine Weeks, students interact with the Caldecott Award winning text Arrow to the Sun by Gerald McDermott. This text which explains how the spirit of the Lord of the Sun was brought to the world of men contains colorful illustrations.
  • In the Third Nine Weeks, students participate in a shared read of the text Judy Moody Saves the World by Megan McDonald. This text is a highly engaging story with amazing illustrations and interesting characters.
  • In the Fourth Nine Weeks, students participate in a shared read of the text Magic Tree House: Day of the Dragon King by Mary Pope Osborne. This text inspires readers with strong characters, imaginative plots, and includes history and science.

Quality informational texts in the materials contain universal and multiple multicultural themes that are timeless and integrate other content areas. Texts are engaging while providing students opportunities to gain and broaden their knowledge base and personal perspectives on a variety of topics at various levels of depth/meaning that lead to the development of a well-rounded individual and facilitate access to future texts. Some texts reviewed include:

  • In the First Nine Weeks, students interact with the text Story of Ruby Bridges by Robert Coles. The text includes moving watercolor paintings and clearly depicts the story of Ruby Bridges.
  • In the Second Nine Weeks, students participate in a shared read of the text The Very First Americans by Cara Ashrose. This informative text contains engaging illustrations and presents historical traditions of Native Americans.
  • In the Third Nine Weeks, students participate in a shared read of the text Jackie Robinson by Sally M. Walker. This is an inspiring sports biography with black and white illustrations throughout.
  • In the Fourth Nine Weeks, students interact with the text Where in the Wild? Camouflaged Creatures by David M. Schwartz and Yael Schy. This text includes full page photographs and playful poems. This give students the opportunity to explore clues to learn about the identity and whereabouts of ten animals.

Indicator 1b

Materials reflect the distribution of text types and genres required by the standards at each grade level.
4/4
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the expectations for materials reflecting the distribution of texts types and genres required by the standards. Text selections reflect an appropriate balance of literary and informational texts in both the Shared Reading texts and the Interactive Read Aloud Texts. The Grade 2 materials reviewed reflect a distribution of text types and genres required by the standards as well as consider a range of student interests. There are fifty-six texts included in the Grade 2 materials reviewed. The ratio of literary to informational texts is appropriate to meet the balance for Grade 2 as identified by grade level standards.

Literary texts include texts such as:

  • Pinky and Rex by James Howe
  • The Legend of the Bluebonnet by Tomie DePaola
  • Judy Moody Saves the World by Megan McDonald
  • Yeh-shen, A Cinderella Tale from China by Ai-Ling Louie
  • Mystery of the Mummy’s Curse by Gertrude C.Warner
  • Time Warp Trio: It’s All Greek to Me by Jon Sciezka and Bryan Kennedy

Informational texts include text such as:

  • Tale of a Tadpole by Karen Wallace
  • The Journey of a Butterfly by Carolyn Scrace
  • Magnets Push, Magnets Pull by Mark Weakland
  • Camouflage:Changing to Hide by Bobbie Kalman
  • Abraham Lincoln:The Great Emancipator by Augusta Stevenson
  • Cracking up: A Story About Erosion by Jacqui Bailey

The materials reflect a variety of student interests and engaging genres such as folktales, fairytales, legends, fantasies, poetry, science, mysteries, biographies, adventures, humorous texts, and historical texts.

Indicator 1c

Texts (including read-aloud texts and some shared reading texts used to build knowledge and vocabulary) have the appropriate level of complexity for the grade level according to quantitative analysis, qualitative analysis, and a relationship to their associated student task. Read-aloud texts at K-2 are above the complexity levels of what most students can read independently.
4/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the expectations for texts having the appropriate level of complexity for the grade according to quantitative analysis, qualitative analysis, and a relationship to their associated students task. Read-aloud texts are above the complexity levels of what most Grade 2 students can read independently. Shared-reads are within the complexity band based on the standards.

The anchor texts are at the appropriate level of rigor and text complexity for Grade 2 with a Lexile range of 400-1000 showing that the texts are within the appropriate quantitative grade level range for Grade 2. Grade 2 students benefit from the Develop or Activate Background Knowledge portion of the read-alouds to help with Reader and Task. All texts for Grade 2 are at a complexity level above what most students can read independently. Quality Interactive Read-Alouds and Shared Reading Texts in the materials include:

In the First Nine Weeks, the teacher reads aloud The Girl Who Loved Horses by Paul Goble.

  • Quantitative: Lexile 890
  • Qualitative: This complex text has a very complex organization with complex characters like the girl and the stallion. The illustrations are very complex as they extend the meaning of the text. The conventionality is very complex with figurative language like angry clouds and drumming hooves. The life experiences are exceedingly complex as students the experiences in the text are distinctly different from the common reader.
  • Reader and Task: To help students access the text, the teacher shows students where the Native American girl lived in the western United States. The teacher shares two Tier 2 words (pursue, joyfully) definitions with the students in order to help students understand the text. To help students understand the ending of the text, the teacher provides students with talking opportunities.

In the Second Nine Weeks, the students read The Very First Americans by Cara Ashrose.

  • Quantitative: AD670
  • Qualitative: The text structure is moderately complex as it is not sequential but rather main idea and details about Native Americans. The use of graphics is moderately complex because the illustrations extend the meaning of the text.The language features are moderately to very complex with familiar vocabulary with academic vocabulary. The purpose of the text is slightly complex with an introductory page about Native Americans. The subject matter is moderately complex since the content is discipline-specific.
  • Reader and Task: Since the information texts contain dense vocabulary, the lesson plans include the following note to the teacher: “It may be best not to use partner reading during this unit. Here are some choices to use for this unit. 1. You can begin with echo reading, and then use choral reading. 2. You can begin with echo reading, and then break into two groups. Some students can reread in partners, while others reread chorally with you.” To help students understand the text, the materials contain a graphic organizer for students to organize what they learn.

In the Third 9 Weeks, the teacher reads aloud Miss Rumphius by Barbara Cooney.

  • Quantitative: Lexile 680
  • Qualitative: This text has very complex illustrations that extend the meaning of the text. The language features are moderately complex with many complex sentences and academic vocabulary such as stoop, wharves, and bristling masts all in the first page of text. The theme is very complex and is revealed over the entire the text. The life experiences are very complex as students do not have many of the same experiences as the main character.
  • Reader and Task: To help students access this text, the Planning Notes contain images of lupines to show students. On Day 2, to help students understand the text, the students start the lesson off by summarizing what they heard on the first day. As the teacher reads the text aloud, the teacher asks comprehension questions. Four Tier 2 words are taught during the lessons (tropical, isle, satisfaction, scattered). The task on Day 2 is for students to write a short letter to the main character and suggest something she could do to make the world more beautiful.

The organization of the Interactive Read-Aloud texts are moderately to very complex with texts such as the use of graphics assists in supporting or extending the meaning of the texts such as Helen Keller: Break Down the Walls! By Margaret Fetty. The qualitative features Interactive Read-Alouds are addressed in Developing or Activating Background Knowledge, Modeling Comprehension Strategies and asking and answering questions during reading, discussion, and written response. The teacher also directly teaches Tier 2 words during the lesson. The qualitative measures are addressed in Shared Reading texts by a focusing on Meaning Vocabulary, Choral Reading, Rereading in Partners and Comprehension Discussion. All of the reading lessons provide ample opportunities for conversations to support the reader with the text they are reading at any given point in time.

Indicator 1d

Materials support students' literacy skills (comprehension) over the course of the school year through increasingly complex text to develop independence of grade level skills (leveled readers and series of texts should be at a variety of complexity levels).
4/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials for Grade 2 meet the expectations that materials support students’ literacy skills (comprehension) over the course of the school year through increasingly complex texts. All texts in the Interactive Read Aloud are above grade level in complexity, which requires teacher scaffolding in order for students to understand and comprehend the Interactive Read Aloud texts. The texts in the Shared Reading are appropriately placed across the units in order to increase in complexity within the grade band. Texts that require more scaffolding and attention in order for students to understand the content are provided more instructional time.

Some examples that demonstrate supporting students’ increasing literacy skills include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • First Nine Weeks: Lexiles for Interactive Read-Aloud and Shared Reading texts have a Lexile range of 400-730. There are eight Interactive Read-Aloud texts and eight Shared Reading texts. Before reading the interactive texts, the teacher develops and activates background knowledge, the teacher models comprehension strategies and asks questions during reading, and finally discusses the story in depth. The teacher teaches Tier 2 words and has students to write a response to their reading. For example, the chapter book Gooney Bird Greene (590) by Lois Lowry is allotted seven days of instruction in the Interactive Read-Aloud. Each day the teacher provides background knowledge about the character before reading then models how good readers make connections. Vocabulary such as admiration, provided, intermission, research, announced, scurried, allegiance, and expression are taught and discussed. The students are asked text-based questions.
  • Second Nine Weeks: Lexiles for Interactive Read-Aloud and Shared Reading texts have a Lexile range of 410-940. There are ten Interactive Read Aloud texts and five Shared Reading texts. Before reading, the teacher introduces the book and provides a purpose for reading. During Shared Reading, students engage in word study, meaning vocabulary, choral reading, rereading in partners and comprehension discussion. After reading, students and teachers participate in a comprehension discussion and focus on story structure using a graphic organizer. For example, The Very First Americans (670L) by Cara Ashrose is a 4-day unit and the beginning to a Native American unit of study. The students are introduced to a map showing the locations where the tribes live throughout the United States. Students also create a graphic organizer that helps organize the information about the different tribes as students read. In addition, the purpose for reading is set each day using text-based questions such as “Why did Native Americans of the plains need to be good horsemen?”, “What makes a tipi a good home for these tribes?” and “Why did they make sure to use all parts of the buffalo?”
  • Third Nine Weeks: Lexiles for Interactive Read-Aloud and Shared Reading texts have a Lexile range of 430-970. It contains nine Interactive Read-Aloud texts and four Shared Reading texts. For example, Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs (730L) by Judi Barrett is a three-day study. Students are taught how good readers make mental images in their head as they read as well as to summarize as they read. Students are then asked to create a story map to identify main characters, setting and events as they happened in the story. Written response to this text is to write a weather report and to write a sequel to the story. Students are introduced to unfamiliar vocabulary throughout the three days and are taught how to compose sentences using a sentence frame such as “Nothing came down from the sky except ___ and ___.”
  • Fourth Nine Weeks: Lexiles for Interactive Read-Aloud and Shared Reading texts have a Lexile range of 380-900. This unit contains nine Interactive Read-Aloud texts and four Shared Reading texts. For example, the Interactive Read-Aloud text, How Do You Raise a Raisin? (900L) by Pam Munoz Ryan is a mixed genre book with a poetry strand that parallels informational text. One day of instruction is for this text (and a second day for reading). Before reading the text, the teacher activates students’ prior knowledge by using a globe or map to indicate all of the places where grapes can be grown. During the reading of the text, students create a timeline showing the process growing, harvesting and processing grapes to make raisins. Students are asked to use the information gathered from their timeline to write a paragraph summarizing the process. They also learn to combine sentences such as “The green grapes were seedless.” and “The green grapes had thin skins.”

Texts increase appropriately throughout the school year, with students engaging in increasingly complex and rigorous materials as they grow their reading skills.

Indicator 1e

Anchor texts (including read-aloud texts in K-2) and series of texts connected to them are accompanied by a text complexity analysis.
1/2
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet the expectations that anchor texts (including read-aloud texts in K-2) and the series of texts connected to them are accompanied by a text complexity analysis.

On page 5 of the Bookworms Teacher's Manual titled Bookworms Books, the rationale and text complexity explanation states, “Our choices started with an experienced group of teachers. They proposed texts and we reviewed them and chose. We thought about content, especially whether the content in fiction included potential to build knowledge. For nonfiction, we also thought about content that was likely taught in science and social studies and for which we could build background knowledge. However, we did attempt to systematically align our choices with science and social studies curricular standards. We also thought about the likelihood that these texts would be interesting and worthy of teacher and student time – we very much wanted to include the highest-quality authors that we could. We also thought about text complexity in terms of Lexiles. " While many of the texts are complex and have many of the quantitative measures as well as reader and task considerations represented, Bookworms did not include their rationale in the area of qualitative analysis for the chosen texts, therefore leaving the user of the program to wonder if the texts fulfill the CCSS requirements, such as language features, text structure, levels of meaning and knowledge demands.

Some of the quantitative measures were considered in choosing the literature in the Bookworms curriculum such as:

  • selection of books within grade-level bands for shared reading, where feasible,
  • arranging these books in slightly ascending order by Lexile,
  • instructing teachers to maintain the order of shared reading selections because of the associated word study sequence and, selecting books for Interactive Read-Aloud that are generally above grade level.

Reader and task have been considered in the text complexity of the Bookworms curriculum. Texts are increasingly rigorous and students progress up a carefully sequenced staircase of increasingly sophisticated skills.

At the first step, the focus is on phonemic awareness and word recognition. The second step involves word recognition and fluency, the third fluency and comprehension, and the fourth vocabulary and comprehension.

While many of the guiding principles of the CCSS for text complexity were considered, the explanation for the qualitative measures used was general rather than specific to each text selection.

Indicator 1f

Anchor text(s), including support materials, provide opportunities for students to engage in a range and volume of reading to achieve grade level reading.
2/2
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials for Grade 2 meet the expectations that anchor and supporting texts provide opportunities for students to engage in a range and volume of reading to achieve grade level reading proficiency. Instructional materials provide opportunities for students to engage in a range and volume of reading as they grow toward independence through the use of read alouds. The year is divided into four 9 week units containing both literary and informational texts. Each day the literacy block is divided into three 45 minute blocks. The first is the interactive block where high quality above grade level text is read aloud. The second block is the shared reading block where students read orally with a partner, silently or chorally as a group. The third block is the differentiation block. During this time, the teacher works with small groups while the rest of the class participates in self selected reading.

Interactive Read-Aloud involves teacher-conducted read-alouds that allow for comprehension strategy modeling, high levels of student engagement, rich discussion, and vocabulary growth. "With input from teachers, we have typically selected books well above grade level because of their potential to increase children’s oral language and background knowledge" (Teacher's Manual, pages 3-4). In the First Nine Weeks of the interactive unit the teacher read alouds include: Alexander and Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day, Alexander Who Used to Be Rich Last Sunday (Viorst), The Girl Who Loved Wild Horses (Gobel), Gooney Bird Greene (Lowry), A Street through Time (Millard) , Creatures Yesterday and Today (Patkau), Story of Ruby Bridges (Coles) , The Flag We Love (Ryan) Poetry, Wolf Island (Godkin).

In the Third Nine Weeks of the interactive unit the teacher read alouds include; Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs (Barrett), My Rows and Piles of Coins (Mollel), Tornado (Byars), Miss Rumphius (Cooney), Camouflage: Changing to Hide (Kalman), D is for Dancing Dragon: A China Alphabet (Crane), Dad, Jackie, and Me (Uhlberg), Going Home: Mystery of Animal Migration (Berkes), Helen Keller: Break Down the Walls! (Fetty).

Shared reading involves two readings of grade-level text, the first in an echo/choral format and the second in partners. The teacher provides a different focus for each of the two readings, the second at a higher level of comprehension.

In the Second Nine Weeks of the shared reading unit the texts include; A-Z Mysteries: The Kidnapped King (Ron Roy), Cam Jansen and the Mystery Writer Mystery (Adler), The Very First Americans (Ashrose), The Pueblo Indians (Ross), If You Lived with the Cherokee.

In the Fourth Nine Weeks of the shared reading unit the texts include; Mummies (Milton), Mystery of the Mummy’s Curse (Warner), Magic Tree House: Day of the Dragon King (Osborne), Time Warp Trio: It’s All Greek to Me (Scieszka)

Criterion 1g - 1n

Materials provide opportunities for rich and rigorous evidence-based discussions and writing about texts to build strong literacy skills.
14/16
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-
Criterion Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet the expectations that students will have opportunities for rich, rigorous discussions and writing tasks that are evidence based. Questions and tasks associated with the texts focus students’ attention back to the texts and are organized to build their speaking and listening skills. Grammar and conventions instruction is embedded to facilitate students’ application of language skills in and out of context. Facilitation and instructional supports for speaking and listening are found within the teacher lesson plans throughout the shared and interactive reading units. The materials partially meet expectations that materials include a mix of on-demand and process writing, however while materials provide multiple opportunities across the span of a school year to learn, practice, and apply different genres/modes of writing, all components of the writing standards are not addressed.

Indicator 1g

Most questions, tasks, and assignments are text-based, requiring students to engage with the text directly (drawing on textual evidence to support both what is explicit as well as valid inferences from the text).
2/2
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the expectations that most questions, tasks, and assignments are text-based, requiring students to engage with the text directly (drawing on textual evidence to support both what is explicit as well as valid inferences from the text). Most questions, tasks, and assignments are text-based, requiring students to engage with the text directly (drawing on textual evidence to support both what is explicit as well as valid inferences from the text).

Each read-aloud in Bookworms features at least one comprehension strategy. Students learn the procedure for applying each strategy. Questions are a mainstay in the read-alouds. They prompt engagement with the content, and they continually model the kind of self-questioning proficient readers undertake. Many of the questions in the lesson plans are at the inferential level and answering them requires that students combine and interpret facts using prior knowledge.

Some examples of texts and questions are as follows:

In the First Nine Weeks of the Shared Reading unit, students read Arthur’s Back to School Day by Lillian Hoban

  • What did the characters do to prepare for school?
  • Do you think Violet can be surprised by what she put in her lunch box? Why?
  • Map events after the problem was revealed.

In the Second Nine Weeks of the Interactive Read-Aloud unit, students read The Rough-Face Girl

  • Why does the Invisible Being’s sister ask them this question?
  • Why were they ashamed?
  • Why does the Invisible Being say she is beautiful?

In the Third Nine Weeks of the Shared Reading unit, students read Jackie Robinson by Sallie M. Walker

  • What were Jackie’s dreams?
  • Create an ongoing timeline of the most salient events in Robinson’s life
  • Discuss the lessons that the author may have wanted to share when she chose to
  • Write about Robinson’s life.

In the Fourth Nine Weeks of the Interactive Read-Aloud unit, students read Amelia and Eleanor Go For A Ride by Pam Munoz Ryan

  • Why do you think people thought that the First Lady should not drive a car?
  • Do you think it was wise for the two women to go for a flight at night?
  • Why do you think she called the dessert “pink clouds on angel food cake”?
  • What do you think the pink clouds were made of?

In each of the nine week units students engage with the text directly, drawing on textual evidence to support what is explicit as well as valid inferences from the text.

Indicator 1h

Materials contain sets of high-quality sequences of text-based questions with activities that build to a culminating task which integrates skills to demonstrate understanding (as appropriate, may be drawing, dictating, writing, speaking, or a combination).
1/2
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet expectations that materials contain sets of high-quality sequences of text-based questions with activities that build to a culminating task which integrates skills to demonstrate understanding. Within materials, there are many sequences of high-quality text-based questions for each unit of instruction that culminate daily to a written product.

Short written response are provided as daily culminating tasks. For example, the questions and tasks that build to a written response after a Shared Fiction Reading include:

  • Before the Reading
    • Partner Sharing: Ask partners to share responses to the previous days writing prompt. They should read their responses to one another and react to what their partner has written. This also allows students to review text from previous day.
    • Word Study: Teacher directs analysis of new words for patterns and meaning. Teacher generates multiple grammatical forms of words if possible.
  • During the First Reading
    • Purpose Setting: There is a clear, comprehension-related purpose to begin the reading.
    • Choral or Echo Reading: Choral reading will be preferred, with the teachers voice leading the students in prosodic reading. Echo reading can substitute when the text is especially challenging. Text portions must be long enough that students are not memorizing.
    • Comprehension Modeling: The teacher stops the reading to model a specific comprehension strategy quickly and in context.
    • Revisit Purpose: The teacher briefly addresses the purpose that was initially set.
  • During the Second Reading
    • Purpose Setting: There is another clear, comprehension-related purpose to begin the reading.
    • Partner Rereading: Students move easily to partners and begin to reread for a set time. They take turns with paragraphs or pages. If necessary, teacher rereads chorally with students who require extra scaffolding.
    • Comprehension Discussion: The teacher engages students in a focused inferential discussion of text content. Students answer some questions individually and others in partners.
    • Writing Prompt: The lessons provide a text-based writing prompt. Ask students to address the prompt independently, during small-group time when the teacher is working elsewhere. The prompt should require a relatively brief response, not an elaborated one.

Through the established routine set aside for interactive and shared reading, Bookworms daily culminating tasks address reading, writing, speaking and listening standards. Materials contain sets of high-quality sequences of text-based questions and activities that demonstrate understanding of specific texts, however materials do not meet the criteria of integrating all of the skills to demonstrate understanding through the completion of a culminating task.

Indicator 1i

Materials provide frequent opportunities and protocols for evidence-based discussions (small group, peer-to-peer, whole class) that encourage the modeling and use of academic vocabulary and syntax.
2/2
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the expectations that materials provide frequent opportunities and protocols for evidence-based discussions that encourage the modeling and use of academic vocabulary and syntax.

On page 3 of the Teacher’s Manual, there is evidence supporting the Interactive and Shared Reading components of the curriculum. “We define shared reading as teacher-supported grade-level reading and interactive read-alouds as teacher-conducted read-alouds that allow for comprehension strategy modeling, high levels of student engagement, rich discussion, and vocabulary growth.”

Protocols such as partner reading, echo reading, talk to your partner, pair-share, every pupil response, and writing provide students multiple opportunities throughout each nine week unit to participate in rich evidence based discussions that require engagement with the text.

Some examples include:

  • In Week one, Day 1 of the First Nine Week shared reading unit, students are introduced to inferences in the story Arthur’s Back to School Day. As the story is read aloud, the teacher stops periodically and demonstrates how the use of information that is already known can be used to make new ideas using examples from the text. Next a focus is provided for students to re-read the text with a partner. Finally, a comprehension discussion takes place with the following questions:

1. What did the characters do to prepare for school?

2. Do you think Violet can be surprised by what she put in her lunch box? Why?

3. What are the doubles? Why does Norman want to trade his doubles?

  • On Day 21 of Week 5 of the Shared Reading unit, while reading The Tale of a Tadpole, the teacher directs children to look at the pictures and any captions of each two page spread. For informational texts, the materials start with echo reading.
  • During the First and Fourth Nine Weeks of the Interactive Read-Aloud unit, students listen to the read alouds, Wolf Island and How a Plant Grows. During the reading, students are asked to pair-share throughout the story. For example,

What will happen now? Talk to your partner about a prediction.

How is a plant different from an animal? Talk to your partner.

Summarize the two main differences, discuss with your partner.

  • During Week 1 of the Third Nine Weeks of the Shared Reading unit, students read Practice Makes Perfect for Rotten Ralph. During Days 2, 3 and 4, students participate in pair-share. For example, students are asked think about what Rotten Ralph’s problem really is, think about how Ralph feels, think about what Ralph’s bad decision was. After each purpose is set during the reading, students are asked to pair=share.
  • On Day 2 of Week 1 of the Interactive Read-Aloud unit, the teacher reads aloud Alexander Who Used to be Rich Last Sunday and students participate by raising their hand to show their answers. An example of this follows: “So see if we can summarize so far. Alexander had a lot of money last Sunday and he spent it all. And now he says that even when he is very rich the same thing will happen. Raise your hand if you agree with Alexander – that no matter how much money you have you will just end up spending it all.”
  • Throughout the Four Nine Week Interactive Read-Aloud units, students have opportunities to write about the stories. For example, in the Second Nine Weeks, the read aloud is The Rough Faced Girl, and students are asked to complete the written response, “If you could send a message to the girl, what would it say?”
  • In the Third Nine Weeks, after the read aloud, Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs, students are provided the following prompt: “I want you to imagine that you lived in the town of Chewandswallow. Write and tell me some of the things that you would like for it to rain or snow.”
  • In the Fourth Nine Weeks after reading Poppy, students are prompted to write and tell their prediction of what Mr. Ocax will do now.

Vocabulary is prevalent in each of the Nine Week Shared Reading and Interactive Read-Aloud units. On page 34 of the Teacher’s Manual, it states, “Each day, new words are introduced during shared reading and during the interactive read-aloud. They include both disciplinary words (terms related to the content areas of science and social studies) and general (Tier 2) words drawn from fiction. Some examples include:

  • In the First Nine Weeks of the Shared Reading, students read a book titled Ivy and Bean. The teacher demonstrates self-monitoring throughout the reading of the text, paying close attention to syntax to help aid in understanding. An example of this is on Day 19 of the fourth week, "[After you read “Everybody But Me” on p. 91] Wait. Does that make sense? I need to stop and monitor my understanding. I’m confused about why Nancy would say, “Everybody has them,” if she were worried about Bean? Maybe if I read on, the author will explain. [Bottom of p. 92] Now it makes sense to me. Nancy isn’t really worried about Bean.”
  • In the Third Week of the Shared Reading unit, students read Judy Moody Saves the World. Each day, students are introduced to new vocabulary words. For example, “Complicated is an adjective that means hard to understand. Or it means that something has lots of parts. Sometimes a recipe is complicated. It is hard to make. A story can be complicated if there are a lot of events. Your day can get complicated if unexpected things happen.” After reading, students are prompted to use the word to answer a question about the text. For example, “How did the first day of school get complicated for the friends? How do you think they felt?”

Throughout the year, students are provided opportunities to engage in evidence-based discussions during the shared and interactive reading of each nine week reading unit. The Teacher’s Manual (pages 31-38) thoroughly outlines protocols for each type of student interaction including but not limited to scripting, quick scaffolds, every pupil response and partners. In addition, vocabulary protocols such as combining, unscrambling and imitating are also included.

Indicator 1j

Materials support students' listening and speaking about what they are reading (or read aloud) and researching (shared projects) with relevant follow-up questions and supports.
2/2
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the expectations that materials support students’ listening and speaking about what they are reading (or read-aloud) and researching (shared projects) with relevant follow-up questions and supports. Throughout each unit, students are asked to make connections, ask questions to aid understanding, create sensory images, infer, determine importance, synthesize, self monitor and clarify.

In the First Nine Weeks of the Shared Reading unit, while reading Henry and Mudge the First Book, students are asked to make connections by identifying information in the words or pictures, identify information that they already know and explicitly linking the information. For example, the teacher models by saying, “I can make a connection here. I remember once that my own dog got lost. The first thing I did was look all around the neighborhood. When I didn’t see him, I made signs with his picture and put one on every corner. I wonder what Henry will do to find Mudge. Adapt this memory to your own experience.”

In the Second Nine Weeks Shared Reading unit, the students read The Very First Americans, and are asked questions to aid understanding, identify a surprise or inconsistency in the text, use that information to formulate a question, answer the question if the information has been provided, or speculate that it might be provided by reading further. For example, the teacher models by stating, “I have to stop here to self monitor. I don’t know what whale berries are. I am going to reread to see if I can figure it out (reread). Oh, I misunderstood. They had whale meat from the sea and they must have picked berries on the land. If something doesn’t make sense, you can either go back and see if you can figure it out, or read on and see if you get more information later. Students are then asked questions to check their understanding such as, What is a tribe? Why do you think that these people ate animals from the sea? What do you think a harpoon is? Can you figure it out from the context of words and pictures?”

In the Second Nine Weeks Shared Reading unit while reading The Kidnapped King, students learn how to synthesize information by identifying details from different parts of a text or from different texts, grouping the details into categories and subcategories, either by topic or text structure element or constructing statements that link the categories. For example, the teacher models by stating, “I can synthesize here by thinking of another story I know. In Hansel and Gretel, two children are kidnapped and they leave a trail of breadcrumbs so that they can be found. We know that only the yellow glass is gone, and the kids are finding pieces one at a time. I think that they are going to be a trail. I think that because I know another story that used that same kind of clue.” Students use this skill when the teacher provides a focus for rereading by asking the question, what are all of the clues that we have so far?

During the Third Nine Weeks of the Shared Reading, students read Practice Makes Perfect for Rotten Ralph and are asked to infer. Students identify information from the text, identify information provided previously or from prior knowledge or experience, create an idea that links the two and is not directly stated in the text. For example, the teacher models this by saying, “I am going to make an inference here. This character is called Rotten Ralph. Rotten means bad. He really is behaving badly. So I think that the author chose to invent a really mean kind of character that was so mean that he couldn’t be real. The author and the illustrator probably wanted us to laugh at Ralph. Students are then asked to apply skill when the teacher provides the focus for reading and poses the question, This chapter is called “A Cheater Prospers.” Why do you think the author chose that title?”

During the Third Nine Weeks Shared Reading unit, students read Jackie Robinson and self-monitor and clarify by identifying information in the text that is surprising, tell why it is surprising or tell why they will either reread or read on to see if their understanding is correct. For example, after modeling by stating, “I have to stop and clarify here. This doesn’t make sense to me. Jersey City is in the United States. I thought that Jackie was going to Canada to play. I am going to have to keep reading to see whether he is in the major league or the minor league. The teacher then asks students to Summarize this new section. You can reread it as you go. Remember to write only the most important things and to use your own words. Start like this: Jackie Robinson had a great season in the minor league.”

In the Third Nine Weeks of the Interactive Read-Aloud unit during the reading of Cloudy with A Chance of Meatballs, students are asked to create sensory images, identify specific words in the text that can be used to target the senses, explain what they know about the meaning of those words or describe the sensory image that can be created by combining the words and what you know. For example, the teacher models this by saying, “Here is a chance to make a mental image, a picture in your head. That is what good readers do. They notice the details about what is happening, and they try to imagine how it might look. On this page, there is another picture, and we can use it to compare our mental images with how the illustrator saw things. We know that the pancake flew through the air and landed on Henry’s head. Think if that happened to you. Henry must have a very surprised look on his face. And of course, I can see him still sitting at the table, with a pancake on his head and a look of surprise on his face. Can you see a picture like that in your mind? Now take a look at how the illustrator drew the scene.”

Indicator 1k

Materials include a mix of on-demand and process writing (e.g. multiple drafts, revisions over time) and short, focused projects, incorporating digital resources where appropriate.
1/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials for Grade 2 partially meet expectations that materials include a mix of on-demand and process, grade-appropriate writing (e.g. grade-appropriate revision and editing) and short, focused projects, incorporating digital resources where appropriate.

While an abundance of on-demand daily writing tasks are given, there are no lessons centered on process writing. While all prompts are connected to texts, there is minimal support for students to develop the writing process.

There are frequent opportunities for rich and rigorous evidence-based discussions and writing about texts to build strong literacy skills; however, these materials do not include opportunities for students to complete multiple drafts and revisions, including focused projects over time.

Examples of daily on-demand writing task include but are not limited to:

  • In Week 2, Day 6 of the First Nine Weeks Shared Reading, students read Henry and Mudge The First Book. The following prompt is given to students, "Pretend you are Henry. Write a note from Henry to Mudge. How do you feel about him? What do you want him to know? "(p. 9)
  • In the Second Nine Weeks of the Interactive Read-Aloud unit, students spend 2 days on the text, The Wall. On the first day they write to the following prompt, “Write a message that you might leave at the wall, with a stone on top.” On day 2 of the reading of The Wall students respond to the prompt, “The wall makes many people sad. Was it a good idea to build the wall? What would you do if you could visit the wall?”
  • During the Third Nine Weeks of the Shared Reading unit in Week 4, Day 17, students read Jackie Robinson. They respond to the following prompt, “We have learned some things about Jackie’s life. Pretend that you are a newspaper reporter and you have to summarize his life. In a summary, you tell only the parts that you think are most important. Start with this sentence: Jackie Robinson had a hard childhood, but he worked hard.” (p.4)
  • In the Fourth Nine Weeks of the Interactive Read-Aloud students spend 2 days reading How Do You Raise a Raisin? On Day 1 students are asked to write a paragraph following raisins “from the cutting to the trailer”. Students are told, “Be sure to include each step. Refer to our timeline as you write. Then on day two students respond to the following prompt: Today I want you to write another paragraph following raisins from the shaker to the raisin box. When you put this paragraph together with the one from last time, you will have a complete description of how raisins are made. Remember to refer to the timeline we made.”

On pages 39-40 of the teacher’s manual it states, “The two prompts and sentence composing are by no means intended as a substitute for process writing instruction, which is typically provided through workshop approaches. Although process writing is not a part of the Bookworms lesson plans, time for it is allocated during the 45-minute interactive read-aloud segment. This time is available in two ways: Together, the read-aloud and sentence composing activity do not require 45 minutes. Teachers can use the remaining time for ongoing writing projects.There are not enough read-aloud lesson plans to fill an entire nine-week period. When the planned read-alouds run out, the teacher can use the remaining 45-minute periods for formal writing instruction, including research projects.”

Although it is possible to create the time needed to undertake process writing and short, focused projects, the materials to provide such instruction are not included in Bookworm’s resources and require teachers to bring in supplemental materials. In addition, there are no digital resources addressed within the Bookworms curriculum.

Indicator 1l

Materials provide opportunities for students to address different text types of writing that reflect the distribution required by the standards.
2/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials for Grade 2 meet expectations that materials provide opportunities for students to address different text types of writing that reflect the distribution required by the standards.

Written responses from Interactive Read-Aloud and Shared Reading are completed as seat work during small-group time. Students have the opportunity to complete one text-based response each day, and two on the days when an Interactive Read-Aloud is done. Teachers are instructed to model for students at the beginning of the year to establish norms for length and quality of these written responses. The prompts vary in structure and address different text types.

The following examples show the reader and task activities provide opportunities for students to respond in the forms of narrative, opinion and informative, however they are not tasked with including a writing structure to include introductions and conclusions nor are they being asked to cite references as to the title of the story read which is one of the requirements in the writing standards for each type of writing.

The CCSS standard for informative writing (2.2) states that students write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points and provide a concluding statement or section.

  • In the First Nine Weeks, Week 5, Day 25 students read, Tale of a Tadpole and are asked to respond to the following informative writing prompt, “Use the cycle organizer to write a paragraph about the life cycle of the frog. Make sure that you include the facts and key details that the author chose to include.”
  • In the Fourth Nine Weeks Interactive Read-Aloud unit students read How a Plant Grows, and respond to the informative writing prompt, “I would like for you to write a sentence that tells about each kind of pollinator. That’s three sentences in all. When you make your own chart, be sure to leave enough space for a sentence, the way I did.”

The CCSS standard for opinion writing (2.1) states that students write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or sections.

  • In Week 1, Day 2 of the Fourth Nine Weeks Shared Reading unit, students read Mummies and respond to the opinion writing prompt: “Reread this chapter and tell which part you found most interesting. Don’t forget to give your reasons.”
  • In the First Nine Weeks on Day 22 of the Interactive Read-Aloud unit after reading A Street Through Time, students are asked, “Would you rather have lived with the Stone Age hunters or with the first farmers? Tell why?”

The CCSS standard for narrative writing (2.3) states that students write narratives in which they recount a well elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.

  • During the First Nine Weeks of the Interactive Read-Aloud, students read Alexander Who Used to Be Rich Last Sunday, and respond to the following narrative writing prompt: “Did Alexander buy anything that you would have bought? Tell why.”
  • After reading The Girl Who Loved Wild Horses in the First NIne Weeks of the Interactive Read-Aloud unit, students respond to the narrative writing prompt, “We are not really sure the girl turned into a horse. Write a new ending for this book in which she is still a girl.”

Some of the texts are chapter books spanning many days and ask students to respond to a variety of writing prompts covering several types of writing. For example during the interactive read aloud in the Third Nine Weeks book study of the text, Tornado, students respond to the following opinion writing prompt, “Write and tell me how you think Tornado got his name.” Later in the week they use the same text to answer the following narrative prompt, “Pretend you are Pete. Make up the story about Tornado and the rooster. Be creative! And be sure to write from Pete’s point of view.”

Materials provide multiple opportunities over the course of a school year for students to address different text types of writing.

Indicator 1m

Materials include regular opportunities for evidence-based writing to support recall of information, opinions with reasons, and relevant information appropriate for the grade level.
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the expectation that materials include regular opportunities for evidence-based writing to support recall of information, opinions with reasons, and relevant information appropriate for the grade level. Writing opportunities are focused around student’s recall of information to develop opinions developed from close reading and to build students’ writing skills over the course of the year. Throughout the curriculum students are prompted to analyze the text using drawing, charting, mapping and writing.

Examples include but are not limited to:

In the First Nine Weeks of the Shared Reading unit, students read Arthur’s Back to School Day and respond to the following prompts where they state their opinions and reasons:

  • Week 1, Day 2: “How did the first day of school get complicated for the friends? How do you think they felt?”
  • Week 1, Day 5: Who do you think had the best first day at school? Tell why.

During the First Nine Weeks of the Shared Reading unit after reading From Tadpole to Frog, students are asked to answer the following prompts in order to support the recall of information:

  • Week 6 Day 26, “Reread pp 4-9. Write down the new information that you learned.”
  • Week 6 Day 27: “Make a list of the traits that tadpoles possess.”

In the Third Nine Weeks Shared Reading unit, during the reading of Practice Makes Perfect for Rotten Ralph, students are asked to respond to the following prompts to support their opinions with reasons:

  • Week 1, Day 1: “Think about the characters so far. Remember that characters have traits. Look back and decide what words you would use to describe Ralph, Percy,and Sarah.”
  • Week 1, Day 2: “Reread page 25. What does this page tell us about Percy? What kind of character is he? Use evidence from the text.”

The Third Nine Weeks of the Shared Reading unit, students read Abraham Lincoln. The prompts are asked to recall information about the text they have read:

  • Week 5, Day 23: “Abraham Lincoln became president of the United States. Given what we learned about him in this chapter, is this surprising? Why? Give reasons for your opinion.”
  • Week 6, Day 28: “Look back that the title of this chapter. Use it to draw some conclusions about Abraham Lincoln's’ early life.”
  • Week 7 ,Day 32: “Think about the changes we see in the Lincoln family. Write a summary of all of the changes that happened in this one chapter. Start like this: Changes happened in the Lincoln family. First, ___________. Next, ___________. Next, ______________. Next, __________________. Remember that a summary isn’t everything. It’s just the most important parts.”

During the Second Nine Weeks of the Interactive Read-Aloud unit, students read The World of Matter and respond to the following prompts in order to recall information:

  • Day 1: “Draw the diagram that we have made together on a piece of paper. [The materials diagram]Then add some other raw materials and man-made materials that you can think of.”
  • Day 2: “Draw the diagram that we have made together on a piece of paper. [States of matter] Write down more examples of solids, liquids, and gases.”

In the Fourth Nine Weeks of the Interactive Read-Aloud unit, students spend 20 days on a chapter book titled Poppy and respond to a prompt at the end of each lesson. Some examples include:

  • Day 1: “Write five sentences describing Lungwort, Sweet Cicely, Poppy, Ragweed, and Mr. Ocax.”
  • Day 8: “Draw a map from Gray House to New House. Use what you already know about the book to help you. And be sure to label your map.”
  • Day 15: “Write what you think the owl is thinking. Use your knowledge of the story to get inside his head.”

Indicator 1n

Materials include explicit instruction of the grammar and conventions standards for grade level as applied in increasingly sophisticated contexts, with opportunities for application both in and out of context.
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet expectations for explicit instruction of the grammar and conventions/language standards as applied in increasingly sophisticated contexts, with opportunities for application both in and out of context.

On page 35 of the Teacher’s Manual it states, “Grammar instruction in Bookworms is based on the daily study of sentences that come from the read-aloud. This approach is called sentence composing, and it is a well established alternative to descriptive grammar instruction (Gartland & Smolkin, 2016; Killgallon & Killgallon, 2000). Drawing sentences from the text of the day’s read-aloud has two advantages: They are crafted by professional authors and they are fresh in mind. These sentences (sometimes in slightly modified form) are used in brief activities; sentence combining, unscrambling, imitating and expanding.”

In sentence combining the teacher presents two or three short sentences and leads the students in combining them into a single sentence with a more complex syntax (Lawlor, 1983; Saddler, 2005). Sentence combining provides an excellent opportunity to prompt the use of connecting words, such as because.

For example, when students read How a Plant Grows (Fourth Nine Weeks), they are given the following:

Original Sentences:

  • Plants cannot move from place to place as animals can.
  • Plants stay in the same spot their whole life.

Possible Combinations:

  • Plants cannot move from place to place as animals can, and they have to stay in the same spot their whole life.
  • Plants have to stay in the same spot their whole life because they cannot move from place to place as animals can.
  • Because plants cannot move from place to place as animals can, they have to stay in the same spot their whole life.

Unscrambling requires the teacher breaks a relatively long sentence from the text into words and short phrases. The teacher then presents these scrambled components without punctuation or initial capitalization to the students and guides them in piecing them back together. The students must think through logical and syntactic connections, asking one another, “What goes with what?” (This is where an interactive board comes in handy because the components can be touched and dragged into new positions.) The process is similar to solving a jigsaw puzzle – first you look for two pieces that go together, then you combine larger chunks. You should constantly be asking the children, “Does this sound right?”

  • For example when students hear Gooney Bird Green (First 9 Weeks), they are provided the following:
    • Original Sentence:
      • The conductor holding a baton stepped to the center and lifted his arms.
    • Scrambled Sentence:
      • the center/the conductor/a baton/and lifted/holding/stepped to/his arms

When using imitating, the teacher presents a single, well-crafted sentence from the text, and then replaces one or more content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs) with blanks. The teacher then prompts the students to substitute other content words. Doing so changes the meaning of the sentence but not the syntax. An example of this can be seen when students hear The Rough-Face Girl (Second Nine Weeks):

Original Sentence: Suddenly all the scars vanished from her body.

Sentences with one or more content words removed:

  • Suddenly all the scars vanished from her _______.
  • Suddenly all the _______ vanished from her ______.

The use of expanding requires the teacher to present a simple sentence from the text and guides the students in adding to it by attaching words, phrases, and clauses, making the syntax more complex. In sentence expanding, it is a good idea to insist that the suggestions offered by students reflect the original meaning of the text.

An example of this can be seen when students hear Camouflage (Third Nine Weeks):

Original Sentence: Some animals have stripes over their eyes.

Possible Expansions:

  • Some animals have stripes over their eyes so predators won’t see them.
  • Some animals have stripes over their eyes to protect them.
  • Some animals have stripes over their eyes, which is a type of camouflage.
  • To camouflage themselves, some animals have stripes over their eyes.

On page 44 of the Teacher’s Manual it states, over time, students will acquire a rich understanding of the grammar and usage principles you have targeted. Providing frequent examples, distributed across lessons, is the key to long-term retention and deep appreciation of how our language works. The manual provides a table with the following information:

Grade 2 Grammar/Sentence Construction

  • Skill: Use collective nouns Sample Cue: Imitating, discuss changes to verb “What if we write the word group here?”
  • Skill: Use frequently occurring irregular plural Sample Cue: Imitating, substitute, substitute irregular plural “Could we write deers instead of foxes?”
  • Skill: Use reflexive pronouns Sample Cue: Expanding, prompt addting pronouns “Could we write fixed it ourselves?”
  • Skill: Use frequently occurring irregular verbs Sample Cue: Imitating, prompt substitutions instead of walked, let’s start with go.
  • Skill: Choose between adjectives adverbs by what is to be modified. Sample Cue: Imitating, ask if substituting would work “Can we change quick to quickly here?”
  • Skill: Produce, expand, rearrange complete simple and compound sentences Sample Cue: All combining and expanding activities are effective at meeting this standard.
  • Skill: Capitalize holidays, product names, geographic names Sample Cue: Imitating or expanding “We can write America here. What does it start with?”
  • Skill: Use apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives Sample Cue: Imitating or expanding “Did I spell didnt right?”
  • Skill: Compare formal and informal uses of English Sample Cue: Imitating and expanding, suggest wordings “What might we say instead of get over here?”

Through the use of sentence composing, students are taught conventions using sentences from the literature they are reading. This allows for flexibility of instruction, so that a teacher can use both formative and summative assessment to drive the instruction and differentiate to successfully fulfill the needs of all students.

Criterion 1o - 1t

Materials in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language targeted to support foundational reading development are aligned to the standards.
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Criterion Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet expectations that materials, questions, and tasks directly teach foundational skills to build reading acquisition by providing systematic and explicit instruction in the alphabetic principle, letter-sound relationships, phonemic awareness, and phonics that demonstrate a transparent and research-based progression for application in and out of context. The materials provide explicit instruction for and practice to address the acquisition of print concepts, including alphabetic knowledge, directionality, structures and features of text. Instructional opportunities are frequently built into the materials for students to practice and gain decoding automaticity and sight-based recognition of high frequency words. There is systematic and explicit instruction in and practice of word recognition and analysis skills in a research-based progression in connected text and tasks. Materials support ongoing and frequent assessment to determine student mastery and inform meaningful differentiation of foundational skills and allow for differentiation of foundational skills. All students receive high-quality instruction of foundational skills through various segments of a complete reading lesson daily.

Indicator 1o

Materials, questions, and tasks directly teach foundational skills to build reading acquisition by providing systematic and explicit instruction in the alphabetic principle, letter-sound relations, phonemic awareness, phonological awareness (K-1), and phonics (K-2) that demonstrate a transparent and research-based progression with opportunities for application both in and out of context.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet that materials, questions, and tasks directly teach foundational skills to build reading acquisition by providing systematic and explicit instruction in the alphabetic principle, letter-sound relationships, phonemic awareness, and phonological awareness (K-1), and phonics (K-2) that demonstrate a transparent and research-based progression for application in and out of context.

Word study instruction is described in the Teacher’s Manual on page 10 and states, “Word study that enables children to read and spell words that they have not studied is an important aspect of the second-grade program. To plan, we began with a review of the difference between long and short vowel sounds, and then we tackled other long vowel spelling patterns. To prepare for word study, teachers will need to make a large set of words for each week to sort in a pocket chart. They will also need headers for long and short vowel sounds. We have estimated 15 minutes for word study; it may be completed more quickly than that.” The following chart from the Teacher’s Manual on page 10 shows some of the activities utilized in a week to teach phonological awareness.

Instruction for the Whole Class

  • Monday - Pattern Review, Word sort (by sound or first by sound and then by pattern)
  • Tuesday - Pair-share sentences, Pattern Review, Word sort (by sound or first by sound and then by pattern
  • Wednesday - Pair-share sentences, Point and spell aloud
  • Thursday - Review word hunt
  • Friday - Test

Practice During DRI

  • Monday- Writing sort, Sentence writing
  • Tuesday - Writing sort, Sentence writing
  • Wednesday - Word Hunt
  • Thursday - Practice word study test
  • Friday - Word Hunt

Phonological Awareness

Pattern Introduction/Review: “Before sorting words, provide an explicit link between the sound and pattern (the same as you do in DRI Using Letter Patterns or VCE). Review the terms long vowel sound and short vowel sound. “When we hear the ____ sound we see the pattern ______.”

Examples in the materials include:

  • During the first 2 weeks of the Shared Reading unit, students review short vowel and VCE words. For example, in week one, day three, students are asked to word hunt the first 20 pages of the book to find 10 short vowel words and in week one, day five, students are asked to word hunt the first 20 pages of the text for long vowel words.

Word Sort: “Display headers with pictures (examples are provided on pages 51-53 of the book How to Plan Differentiated Reading Instruction) that represent the vowel sound that you are targeting. Pronounce each word to be sorted, without allowing the students to see it, and compare it to each of the headers. Use an every-pupil response technique to have the class identify the word’s placement. Then, show the word and sort it. If words are sorted (as in long and short vowels), then you are done. If there is more than one spelling sorted for the same sound, you re-sort that column by pattern. This second tier of sorting begins with r-controlled vowels and continues through all of the long vowel patterns. You will see the words sorted by pattern in the scope and sequence.

Point and Spell Aloud or Count Sounds: “Repeat the procedure for word sorting by sound, and then add a segment where you ask students to look at their own writing sort in their notebook. Say a word. Ask all children to find that word in their writing sort. Say, “Go,” and ask them to spell that word out loud, chorally, or to say and count the sounds on the fingers. While we are teaching patterns, we can quickly review individual sounds to help students when they are spelling untaught words.”

Writing Sort: “Mix up the words after you sort. Ask students to copy the headers and then to copy the words into their notebooks under the appropriate header.”

Sentence Writing: “For words with long vowel patterns, we have to link pattern and meaning. We ask children to write sentences that use two of their word study words. Sentences with two target words are better reflective of word meanings.”

Super Sentences: “Super sentences use a planning web to plan a sentence. The target word is in the center, and the spokes are question words. A super sentence uses at least three spokes. This procedure helps children to write longer sentences with more than one simple clause, again providing clearer demonstration of word meanings in context.”

Word Hunt: “Ask students to reread text, making a list of words with the target sounds or patterns. Be prepared for the fact that they will make errors. When you review the word hunt, create an oddball category so that you can explain that some words look the same but have a different sound or pattern.”

Throughout each nine-week unit students are asked to continue word hunts looking for words with the controlled-vowel pairs and patterns as well as words with common spelling-sound correspondences.

The activities are consistent throughout the Bookworms program from Kindergarten through Grade 2, thus creating a transparent progression in teaching the foundational skills. Instruction of these skills is both systematic and explicit, and by the second grade, students have a good understanding of letter-sound relationships as well as phonemic and phonological awareness and the procedures utilized to teach these skills.

Indicator 1p

Materials, questions, and tasks provide explicit instruction for and regular practice to address the acqusition of print concepts, including alphabetic knowledge, directionality, and function (K-1), structures and features of text (1-2).
2/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the expectations for materials, questions, and tasks provide explicit instruction for and regular practice to address the acquisition of print concepts, including alphabetic knowledge, directionality, and function (K-1), structures and features of text (1-2).

Students have opportunities to learn about text structures. According to the Teacher’s Manual: “The books we are reading are interesting and complex; children may need reminders of previous content to get ready for the day’s new reading. For narratives, you will see that we prompt you to keep on ongoing story map filled in after the day’s discussion. You can always use that map to review the story as necessary. For nonfiction, the text structure focus is more varied. Again, display a chart paper version so that students can review.” Examples of lessons with text structures are:

  • In the First Nine Weeks, Week 1 Day 2 with Arthur’s Back to School Day, the teacher guides the students to work on a story map. “Yesterday we learned about the setting and the characters in this story. Today we learned about the problem. The problem in a story is often some kind of complication. Let’s add to our map.”
  • In the First Nine Weeks, Week 5, Day 23 with Tale of a Tadpole, the teacher states: develop means changes that happen as you get older. Babies learn to crawl and then walk and then run. Animals develop too. Tadpoles have to develop to become frogs. Today we are going to read about tadpole development. Think about the sequence. What happens first, next, last? Write four sentences to describe the development of a tadpole. Make sure you get the sequence right. Use pages 14-21. What happens first? What happens second? What happens third? What happens fourth?
  • In the First Nine Weeks, Week 5, Day 21 while reading Tale of a Tadpole the focus on text structure is as follows: “We are going to work with nonfiction this week. Nonfiction books are books where everything is real. Often the illustrator of a nonfiction book is a photographer. Nonfiction books do not have characters, problems, and resolutions. They are organized in different ways. Today we are going to start a cycle book. In a cycle, the author shares a series of events, but they happen over and over again. Show cycle organizer. When we read a book that is describing a cycle, we have to remember the events in sequence and also how they start again.”
  • In the Second Nine Weeks of Shared Reading, Week 1, Day 2 with The Kidnapped King, Chapter 2, the teacher states, “[I hope Sammi’s allergies won’t be too much trouble.] I am going to stop here. These allergies are mentioned a lot, and they seem kind of serious. Since this is a mystery, we have to look for things that will be important. I think that Sammi’s allergies are going to be important somehow, because the author is mentioning them several times. Then the teacher provide a focus for rereading in partners; Look for clues that give you information about Sammi. What do we know about him? What can we figure out?

The materials include lessons about text features, which are found mostly in informational books where there are diagrams, captions, an index and a table of contents. For example:

  • In the First Nine Weeks Shared Reading unit while reading Tale of a Tadpole on pp. 8-13, for each two-page spread, the teacher directs students to look at the pictures first. The teacher leads the reading, and then has students read any picture captions.
  • While reading From Caterpillar to Butterfly during the First Nine Weeks, Week 7, Day 31 of Shared Reading: “We will use the same cycle map to keep track of facts and information about butterflies. Look at the illustrations on the bottom of page 27. They show the life cycle of the butterfly.”

Indicator 1q

Instructional opportunities are frequently built into the materials for students to practice and gain decoding automaticity and sight-based recognition of high frequency words. This includes reading fluency in oral reading beginning in mid-Grade 1 and through Grade 2.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the expectations that instructional opportunities are frequently built into the materials for students to practice and gain decoding automaticity and sight-based recognition of high frequency words. This includes reading fluency in oral reading beginning in mid Grade 1 and through Grade 2.

Irregularly spelled words are taught in Grade 2 throughout each Nine week unit of the Shared Reading utilizing a high-frequency word protocol. “Stretch the sounds first. Then print the word. Then show how the sounds match the letters from left to right. Then give the children words on a list. Call the words and have them touch them.”

Upon entering Grade 2, students are assessed with a high-frequency word inventory. For students who do not know all of the words, the teacher will group students and select words for each group based on the assessment.

To practice becoming a fluent reader, two strategies are used in the whole class: choral reading or echo reading. According to the Teacher’s Manual: “Choose echo reading for the first chapters of a book, or for books that are very difficult. Be sure to read enough text that the students cannot keep it in short-term memory. Stop reading and ask the students to reread that same text chorally. Choose choral reading as the students build fluency or with books that are easier for them. For some lessons, the text may be too long to complete the first reading in the time allowed. When this is the case, read chorally for at least 8 minutes, and then ask the children to simply listen as you finish the pages planned in a read aloud.” There is a missed opportunity to emphasize to students what they are practicing in order to be a fluent reader. There is no mention to the students about of rate, prosody, or accuracy.

To assess students’ fluency, learning modules about screening and diagnosis are provided on the website. Teachers are directed to use DIBELS Next to assess each student’s fluency. The materials suggest providing small group instruction around fluency and comprehension based on the results of the DIBELS assessment. Small group instruction around fluency can be found in the books by Walpole and McKenna. Fluency and comprehension instruction utilizes narrative text for building fluency. Each day the text is reviewed quickly from the previous lesson and then read using the choral or echo protocol (Teacher’s Manual page 25). At grades K-1, the teacher reads aloud. At grade 2, children whisper read. “In the case of a read-aloud, stop about every 2 minutes and elicit a student response. In the case of whisper reading, you may monitor or leave the group. (About 7 minutes.)”

Fluency instruction in Grade 2 focuses on decodable text reading, vowel team analogies, and letter patterns. Differentiated instruction occurs in Tier 2 small groups for students who are struggling with foundational skills. Students who continue to struggle will then be placed in Tier 3 groups as stated on page 49 of the Teacher’s Manual. “We view differentiation in the classroom as tier 2 instruction, and we have planned skills lessons to address specific deficits. At the same time slot, teachers can accelerate skills for students, or focus only on vocabulary and comprehension for students who are totally fluent. Using the Informal Decoding Inventory and oral reading fluency data, students are assigned to one of four differentiated instruction skill groups. The full instructional protocol for each group is presented in How to plan differentiated reading instruction for grades K-3 (Walpole &; McKenna, 2009). The instruction is designed in three-week cycles, with a progress-monitoring assessment that is used to help teachers know when to reteach the lessons, move to the next set of lessons, or regroup their students. We recommend that teachers try a 3-week cycle twice themselves, and then once with a different teacher. If students are still not mastering the target content, they should move to a tier 3 intervention.”

Examples of differentiated lessons for high-frequency word learning and fluency for students in tier one include:

  • Sight based recognition of high-frequency words protocol- Teacher’s Manual pg. 53: Each day, introduce two new words and review previous ones. Stretch the sounds first. Then print the word. Then show how the sounds match the letters from left to right. Then give the children words on a list. Call the words and have them touch them. Call the words and have them spell them aloud.
  • Decodable text reading- Teacher’s Manual pg. 52:“Quickly pre teach any words that you think will be problematic. Set your timer and ask children to whisper read until time is called. Tell them that if they know the words, they should just say them, and if they don’t they should sound and blend. When the timer expires, switch to partner reading. Children should alternate pages until time is called. One child is reading while the other tracks and listens. If the reader makes a mistake, the coach should ask him to reread. When time expires, switch to choral reading.

Indicator 1r

Materials, questions, and tasks provide systematic and explicit instruction in and practice of word recognition and analysis skills in a research-based progression in connected text and tasks.
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the expectations that materials, questions, and tasks provide systematic and explicit instruction in and practice of word recognition and analysis skills in a research-based progression in connected text and tasks. Opportunities to practice word recognition and analysis are in the following segments: Word Study, Shared Reading and differentiated groups.

Word Study occurs at the beginning of Shared Reading. Through Word Study, students read and spell words. Strategies to practice patterns include: pattern introduction/review, word sort, point and spell aloud or count sounds, writing sort, sentence writing, and super sentences. For example, in the First 9 Weeks, Week 6, Day 26 the word study portion is: Sort by sound, then by pattern (short a, aCE, AY) clay, play, may, gray, scrape, shape, paste, strange, snag, span. Optional Challenge Words: replay, payment, graceful, shaping.

In the Shared Reading lessons, students read grade-level text, which helps them practice word recognition and analysis. For example, in the First Nine weeks, students read Authur’s Back to School Day, which is a “And I Can Read too” book.

Tasks for practicing high-frequency words are provided during differentiated reading instruction. For example, for students in Long-Vowel Teams group, the generic lesson plan: “We will work with some words. The first word is ___. What word? Watch me count the sounds in ___. There are ___ sounds. Now watch me write the letters: ____. There are ___ sounds and ___letters in ___.”

Indicator 1s

Materials support ongoing and frequent assessment to determine student mastery and inform meantingful differentiantion of foundational skills, including a clear and specific protocol as to how students performing below standard on these assessments will be supported.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the expectations that materials support ongoing and frequent assessment to determine student mastery and inform meaningful differentiation of foundational skills, including a clear and specific protocol as to how students performing below standard on these assessments will be supported. Bookworms assessment in based in The Cognitive Model. Assessments are included through DIBELS Next and in How to Plan Differentiated Reading Instruction.

Assessment opportunities are provided over the course of the year within the core materials for students to demonstrate progress toward mastery and independence of foundational skills. For example, in Word Study, during the First Nine Weeks, Week 1, students are assessed on their learning of short and long vowel sounds on the fifth day.

Through the use of DIBELS Next, teachers are provided foundational skill assessments for screening and progress monitoring. With DIBELS Next, a teacher can assess students’ fluency. Oral Reading Fluency is assessed with the benchmark test in the fall, winter, and spring. Progress monitoring can be administered weekly.

Additional assessments are offered in the book How To Plan Differentiated Reading Instruction book written by Sharon Walpole and Michael C. McKenna. Assessment tools that measure students’ abilities to decode sounds within words having varying syllable structures can be accessed here. The teacher should use the Informal Decoding Inventory which is found on the website or in Differentiated Reading Instruction in Grades 4 and 5: Strategies and Resources when a Grade 2 student is not a fluent reader. The Informal Decoding Inventory provides educators with instructions on assessing students in decoding single syllable words with specific focal sounds like; short vowels, consonant blends and digraphs, r-controlled vowel patterns, vowel consonant-e, and vowel teams. Additionally, assessors may test students for multisyllabic decoding skills in compound words, open syllables, vowel consonant-e syllables, r-controlled syllables, vowel team syllables, and consonant -le syllables. Based on data from the Informal Decoding Inventory, the teacher places students in differentiated small groups. The instruction for the small group is designed to be run in three-week cycles with a progress-monitoring assessment that is used to help teachers know when to reteach the lessons, when to move to the next set of lessons, or when to regroup their students. “We recommend that teachers try a 3-week cycle twice themselves, and then once with a different teacher. If students are still not mastering the target content, they should move to a tier 3 intervention” (p. 48). Based on the foundational skill assessments, Grade 2 students who are fluent readers participate in silent reading with support for vocabulary and comprehension.

Indicator 1t

Materials, questions, and tasks provide high-quality lessons and activities that allow for differentiation of foundational skills.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the expectations that materials, questions, and tasks provide high-quality lessons and activities that allow for differentiation of foundational skills. All students receive high-quality instruction of foundational skills through various segments of a complete reading lesson daily. The literacy block is composed of the following components:

  • Read-Alouds
  • Grammar and Writing Instruction
  • Word Study
  • Shared Reading
  • Differentiated Instruction

The Teacher’s Manual provides guidance to teachers for scaffolding and adapting lessons and activities to support student needs. Within the Differentiated Instruction component of the Teacher’s Manual, a Walkthrough Observation Tool Designed to Enhance Implementation is available with strategies teachers can access to address basic alphabetic knowledge, using letter sounds, and using letter patterns (Teacher Manual, pgs. 49-50). During build foundational skills in small groups segment of the ELA lessons, students have opportunities to practice with each grade level foundational skill component in order to reach mastery.

The Bookworms philosophy regarding teaching reading and differentiation is as follows, “We view differentiation in the classroom as tier 2 instruction, and we have planned skills lessons to address specific needs. At the same time slot, teachers can accelerate skills for some students, or focus only on writing for students with very strong decoding. Using only a letter name and sound inventory, students are assigned to one of three differentiated instruction skill groups to start: Basic Alphabet Knowledge for students who do not know their letter names and sounds; Using Letter Sounds for students who know nearly all of their sounds, but struggle to blend; and Using Letter Patterns for students who struggle with automaticity.”

Examples of small group differentiated lessons (found in How to Plan Differentiated Reading Instruction) are:

  • Long-Vowel Teams, Decoding by Analogy:
    • You know how to read short vowels, r-controlled vowels, and vowel-consonant-e patterns. We are going to work with other long-vowel patterns. The way we’ll do it is we’ll learn a set of clue words, and we’ll use those words to read other words. You clue words today are ___. They all use patterns to spell the long ___.
  • Multisyllabic Decoding Practice:
    • Let’s warm up with some word reading. Remember that you know everything you need to know to read long words. When you see a new word, look for the vowel patterns, decode each syllable, and then blend and check.

In How to Plan Differentiated Reading Instruction, after assessing students of learning in their differentiated group, there are basic suggestions for how to plan next steps. For example, for students in the Vowel Teams, “you will have to decide whether students can read single-syllable words with the vowel teams you have taught. If they can, they are through with decodable text and are ready to focus on fluency and comprehension. If they cannot choose new words and reteach.” There are basic directions to the teacher as to how to proceed with students in each group. These directions provide students who need more opportunities to practice particular foundational skills, more opportunities, while students who are ready to move forward in their learning, can be move to the next step in foundational skill learning.

Gateway Two

Building Knowledge with Texts, Vocabulary, and Tasks

Partially Meets Expectations

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Gateway Two Details

The instructional materials for Grade 2 partially meet the expectations of the Gateway 2. Texts are organized to support students' building knowledge of different topics, and sets of text-dependent questions and tasks provide opportunities for students to analyze ideas within and across texts. Some support for shared research is provided. The materials do not include process writing instruction and a progression of writing skills, nor is there full support for students' independent reading.

Criterion 2a - 2h

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Indicator 2a

Texts are organized around a topic/topics to build students knowledge and vocabulary which will over time support and help grow students' ability to comprehend complex texts independently and proficiently.
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the expectation that texts are organized around a topic/topics to build students knowledge and vocabulary which will over time support and help grow students’ ability to comprehend complex texts independently and proficiently.

According to the Bookworms Teacher's Manual for Grade 2, “Our goal is for all children to build their fluency, comprehension and vocabulary skills, to encounter meaningful texts, and to leave second grade ready to read third-grade texts fluently and with strong comprehension.” In the Teacher’s Manual on page 5 it states, “We thought about content, especially whether the content in fiction included access to a variety of families, which may include socioeconomics, ELL, home support etc, and a potential to build knowledge. For nonfiction, we also thought about content that was likely taught in science and social studies and for which we could build background knowledge."

The First Nine Weeks unit for Shared Reading is divided into two topics.

  • The First Four Weeks are spent on a narrative unit about friendship which includes titles such as Arthur’s Back to School Day (Hoban), Henry and Mudge: The First Book (Rylant), Pinky and Rex (Howe), Ivy and Bean (Barrows).
  • The Second Four Weeks are on an informational text unit about cycles which include: Tale of a Tadpole (Wallace), From Tadpole to Frog (Pfeffer), From Caterpillar to Butterfly (Legg), The Journey of a Butterfly (Scrace).

The First Two Weeks of the Second Nine Weeks of the shared reading unit focuses on a type of realistic fiction called mystery and includes titles such as, A-Z Mysteries, The Kidnapped King (Ron Roy), Cam Jansen and the Mystery Writer Mystery (Adler). The next three weeks of the Shared Reading unit focuses on Native Americans and uses the following titles: The Very First Americans (Ashrose), The Pueblo Indians (Ross), If You Lived with the Cherokee(Roop).

The Third Nine Weeks of the Shared Reading unit focuses on humor and biographies and includes the titles such as: Practice Makes Perfect for Rotten Ralph (Gantos), Judy Moody Saves the World (McDonald), Jackie Robinson (Walker), Abraham Lincoln: The Great Emancipator (Stevenson).

The Fourth Nine Weeks of the Shared Reading unit focuses on genres such as mystery, adventure and fantasy utilizing chapter book titles such as, Mummies (Milton), Mystery of the Mummy’s Curse (Warner), Magic Tree House: Day of the Dragon King (Osborne), Time Warp Trio: It’s All Greek to Me (Scieszka).

According to the Bookworms materials, “While the shared reading text order should be maintained to allow for the word study scope and sequence to stay intact, the Interactive Read-Alouds are arranged around Lexile levels rather than topics, and gives flexibility for teachers to alter the order which allows for titles to be reorganized to fit within the shared reading topics.” For example during the Shared Reading unit that focuses on Native Americans the teacher may use the following interactive reading texts: Arrow to the Sun (McDermott) 480L, Starry Messenger (Sis) 830L 3 and The Rough-Face Girl (Martin).

Indicator 2b

Materials contain sets of coherently sequenced questions and tasks that require students to analyze the language (words/phrases), key ideas, details, craft, and structure of individual texts in order to make meaning and build understanding of texts and topics.
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the expectations materials contain sets of coherently sequenced questions and tasks that require students to analyze the language (words/phrases), key ideas, details, craft, and structure of individual texts in order to make meaning and build understanding of texts and topics.

Analysis of Language

On page 24 of the Teacher’s Manual, it states, “In Shared Reading, the words that are selected for instruction are connected to the meaning and theme of the text to be read that day. You will see that we include information about the part of speech and often about transformations into different parts of speech. It may be helpful to display the new word and its definition on the board each day. You will see that students will have to use the word in super sentences, so it is important that they can see it. Also consider creating a vocabulary board, with the title of the book or a picture of its cover and all words introduced. Review and use the words as often as possible.”

  • For example, during the First Nine Weeks, Week 4, Day 16, the text is Ivy and Bean, which is part of the friendship theme, the teacher states, “ The characters we have met so far have relationships. Relationships is a noun that means connections. These characters are friends – that’s their relationship. There are other kinds of relationships, too. Classmates have a relationship. Family members have a relationship. You can have relationships that are good (like with your friends) and also bad ones (with people whom you don’t like).”
  • During an informational theme in Week 5 ,Day 21, the text is In Tale of a Tadpole, the teacher provides the definition. “An amphibian is a type of animal. Characteristics: Amphibians lay a special kind of egg without a hard shell; amphibians have four legs and are cold blooded. Non-examples: Snakes are animals, but they are not amphibians because they don’t have four legs. Cows are animals, but they are not amphibians because they don’t lay eggs. Frogs, toads, and salamanders are amphibians. We are going to learn about how frogs grow from their eggs. Frogs are one type of amphibian. (Show frog on cover).”

On page 26 of the Teacher’s Manual, it states, “If there are words in the text that students do not understand, explain them during echo or choral reading. As you move from one page to the next, you can stop briefly to provide an explanation.”

Using the quick scaffolding protocol described on page 33 of the teacher’s manual, the teacher explains difficult or unfamiliar vocabulary.

  • For example, during the interactive read aloud Alexander Who Used to be Rich Last Sunday in the First Nine Weeks, while reading the teacher states, “Bus tokens look like coins but you can only use them to ride the bus.” or during the Second Nine Weeks while reading Arrow to the Sun, the teacher states, “A kiva is a special underground room.”

On page 27 of the Teacher’s Manual, information concerning text structure is referenced. “For narratives, you will see that we prompt you to keep on ongoing story map filled in after the day’s discussion. You can always use that map to review the story as necessary. For nonfiction, the text structure focus is more varied. Again, display a chart paper version so that students can review.” “As with vocabulary, our approach to text structure differs depending on whether the book is fiction or nonfiction. In the case of fiction, the format is almost invariably narrative so that previewing it in advance is unnecessary. In the case of an information book, however, an author may employ a number of organization patterns. We have included suggestions for previewing how the text of a particular information book is structured. Providing this knowledge in advance is likely to improve comprehension (e.g., Alvermann & Swafford, 1989). Just as important, continually exposing students to how nonfiction texts are structured will provide them with frameworks they can use in their own writing.” Some examples of text structure include:

  • During the third week of the First Nine Weeks Shared Reading unit, students read Pinky and Rex and create a story map. On Day 1 the focus is characters and setting, Day 2 focuses on the problem, Day 3 students add events after the problem, and Day 4 is the resolution.
  • During the fourth week of the Third Nine Weeks Shared Reading unit, students read Jackie Robinson and focus on timelines. The teacher utilizes the following script, “Remember that a biography is generally structured as a sequence of events. Create an ongoing timeline of the most salient events in Robinson’s life – this biography is not very detailed, but it gives a sense that biographies go in order.”
  • In the Fourth Nine Weeks of the Shared Reading unit in week 1, students read Mummies and the teacher provides the following focus on text structure, “ Let’s think about the main topic of this book. Here’s a hint – it’s the same as the title! We can start a diagram to help us remember how Joyce Milton organized the facts in this book. I’ll write the main topic in the center. What’s the subtopic we’ve just read about? [Prompt reasons for mummies.]”

Indicator 2c

Materials contain a coherently sequenced set of text-dependent questions and tasks that require students to analyze the integration of knowledge and ideas across both individual and multiple texts.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials for Grade 2 meet expectations that materials contain a coherently sequenced set of text-based questions and tasks that require students to build knowledge and integrate ideas across both individual and multiple texts.

During the First Nine Weeks of the Shared Reading unit, students study the themes of friendship using fictional text and later explore the nonfiction theme of life cycles. Throughout these themes, students are required to utilize prior knowledge to build and integrate ideas across both individual and multiple texts. For example, during the first week, students read Arthur’s Back to School Day. Each day, the teacher reviews the learning from the previous day and builds upon that learning to increase understanding. On Day 1, the teacher states, ” Remember that stories have parts. If you know the parts, it is easier to remember the story. Today we got some information about the setting and the characters. The setting is the place and time where the story happens. The characters are people or animals in the story. Let’s summarize what we know so far on our story map.” On Day 2, the teacher states, “Yesterday we learned about the setting and the characters in this story. Today we learned about the problem. The problem in a story is often some kind of complication. Let’s add to our map. On days 3 & 4 students map the events after the problem and on day 5 they add the resolution. Some text-based questions the teacher asks to assist students in completing the following tasks are; Now focus on the characters. What do we know about each one? What did the characters do to prepare for school? What exactly happened to make the day complicated?”

During the Fourth Nine Weeks of the Shared Reading unit, students read an informational book called Mummies. Throughout the week, students utilize a diagram to assist them in learning how this genre is organized. For example, during the first week, the teacher states, "Let’s think about the main topic of this book. Here’s a hint – it’s the same as the title! We can start a diagram to help us remember how Joyce Milton organized the facts in this book. I’ll write the main topic in the center. What’s the subtopic we’ve just read about? [Prompt reasons for mummies.]” On Day 2, "Yesterday we found out that the first subtopic was why mummies were made. What is today’s subtopic?" Day 3, "What subtopic can we add for today? [Prompt mummies after the pyramids.]" And on Day 4, "Think about what we learned in the last part of the book. What can we call the subtopic? [Prompt what happened to the mummies. Review the entire topic-subtopic diagram.]"

Examples of students building knowledge and integrating ideas across both individual and multiple texts include but are not limited to:

  • In the second week of the First Nine Weeks unit, students read Henry and Mudge. The teacher makes connections between the stories to introduce character traits by stating, “Both the Arthur stories and the Henry and Mudge stories are fictional. That means that they are not real. When authors write stories, they have to create characters. Great characters, like Henry and Mudge, have traits. Character traits are words that you can use to describe a character. They are things you can see in the illustrations (like red hair, or a long tail) and they are also things that you have to figure out. Characters might be brave or lonely or helpful. When we understand a book well, we can describe the traits of the characters.” Students are then asked to create a list of character traits. Some text-based questions used during this text study include; Why was Henry lonely? Why did Henry’s mother and father decide to get Henry a dog?
  • During the third week of the First Nine Weeks Shared Reading unit, the teacher integrates the idea of friendship across multiple texts by stating, “The characters we have met so far have relationships. Relationships is a noun that means connections. These characters are friends – that’s their relationship. There are other kinds of relationships, too. Classmates have a relationship. Family members have a relationship. You can have relationships that are good (like with your friends) and also bad ones (with people whom you don’t like). While reading Pinky and Rex, the teacher poses the following text-based questions: "Which character was jealous? Why? Which character did something to impress another character? Did it work? What did it mean when the author told us that Pinky had a new favorite shirt? Why did Amanda want help picking out her clothes? Why didn’t Pinky help her?"
  • During the theme study of life cycles, students focus on tadpoles in Tale of a Tadpole and move onto the study of frogs in From Tadpole to Frog. Students are asked to synthesize information learned from the two texts. For example, “We did learn a lot about frogs last week, but this book has new information. Think about how these two books are different. In addition we’ve read two books about the frogs, and the authors used different organizational plans. Let’s compare our timeline with the cycle map from the last book. Which do you like better? What are your reasons? Why is it helpful to read more than one book on the same topic?”

Indicator 2d

The questions and tasks support students' ability to complete culminating tasks in which they demonstrate their knowledge of a topic (or, for grades 6-8, a theme) through integrated skills (e.g. combination of reading, writing, speaking, listening).
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet the expectations that the questions and tasks support students’ ability to complete culminating tasks in which they demonstrate their knowledge of a topic through integrated skills (e.g. combination of reading, writing, speaking, listening). Within Bookworms, culminating writing tasks include daily writing prompts that consistently demonstrate students’ knowledge of a read-aloud book. Additionally, although daily routines incorporate reading, writing, speaking, and listening.

Culminating tasks are completed daily utilizing pair-share written responses using vocabulary words or responding to text, comprehension discussions accessing knowledge from the previous day’s lesson, focusing on text structures utilizing story maps, and written responses. Each task utilizes a combination of reading, writing, speaking and listening. In the Teacher’s Manual on page 24 it states, "Pair-share Written Responses. We begin by asking children to share what they have written the previous day with their partner. This procedure accomplished three goals: 1) it ensure that all writing in response to reading has an audience, and 2) it provides a student-controlled review of previously-read text, and 3) it provides students with peer examples of different interpretations of text meaning.” This procedure integrates a combination of writing, speaking and listening. For example,

  • In Week 4, Day 17 during the Third Nine Weeks Shared Reading unit, students are asked to respond and pair share their responses to the text Jackie Robinson. The question was “Think about why people were prejudiced against Jackie’s family.” In addition, students are asked to use prejudice in a super sentence. “We have learned some things about Jackie’s life. Pretend that you are a newspaper reporter and you have to summarize his life. In a summary, you tell only the parts that you think are most important. Start with this sentence: Jackie Robinson had a hard childhood, but he worked hard.” The following day, students are asked to share their writing with one another.
  • On page 27 of the Teacher’s Manual, it states, “Focus on Text Structure. The books we are reading are interesting and complex; children may need reminders of previous content to get ready for the day’s new reading. For narratives, you will see that we prompt you to keep on ongoing story map filled in after the day’s discussion. You can always use that map to review the story as necessary. For nonfiction, the text structure focus is more varied. Again, display a chart paper version so that students can review.” This procedure utilizes a combination of reading, writing and listening.
  • During the First Nine Weeks using the text Pinky and Rex, students create a story map focusing on setting and characters. As they read the text for the next 4 days, they continue to add to the story map. On Day 2 they map the problem, Day 3 they map events after problem, and Day 4 the resolution. Throughout the study of this text the teacher elicits comprehension by asking question such as, "Which character was jealous? Why? Which character did something to impress another character? Did it work? What did it mean when the author told us that Pinky had a new favorite shirt? Why did Amanda want help picking out her clothes? Why didn’t Pinky help her?"

Students demonstrate their knowledge of the topic combining reading, speaking and listening, which they use at the end of the lesson in their written response. For example, Week 3, Day 12 of the Fourth Nine Weeks of the Shared Reading unit, while reading The Mystery of the Mummy’s Curse, students discuss the following question, "Why didn’t the children tell Lori about the mummy?" At the end of the discussion students are asked to respond to the question, "Why do you think Lori wants to know about the mummy?" The student responses will then be shared with a partner the following day.

The Teacher’s Manual also states, “We have provided daily written responses to help children demonstrate and deepen their comprehension. Depending on time, you may use the written responses during whole-group time or as seatwork during small-group time. Model for students at the beginning of the year to establish norms for length and quality.” In Week 6 of the Second Nine Weeks of the interactive reading unit, students read Starry Messenger and are asked to write to the following prompt, “Now I would like for you to write a message to Galileo. Include some questions you would like to have asked him about his leaning tower experiment.”

Materials contain sets of high-quality sequences of text-based questions and activities that demonstrate understanding of specific texts, however materials do not meet the criteria of integrating all of the skills to demonstrate understanding through the completion of a culminating task.

Indicator 2e

Materials include a cohesive, year-long plan for students to interact with and build key academic vocabulary words in and across texts.
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet the expectations that materials include a cohesive, year-long plan for students to interact and build key academic vocabulary words in and across texts.

In the Teacher’s Manual on page 32, it states, “Our approaches to vocabulary are the same as those we have championed for differentiated reading instruction (Walpole &; McKenna, 2009; Walpole, McKenna, & Philippakos, 2011). We adhere to a few basic approaches of established effectiveness, and these approaches are different for fiction and information books." The Manual also states, "For fiction, we recommend neither pretesting nor preteaching words in advance. Pretesting wastes valuable time given the fact that students can be expected to benefit from attention to words even if they already possess a working knowledge of their meanings. For fiction, we have chosen Tier 2 words (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2013), which are general in nature and which students will need to know as they move forward in school. Beck and her colleagues point out that the problem with preteaching such words is the danger that they can distract students when the teacher mentions them during the read-aloud. Accordingly, we have placed them near the end of each session. We have incorporated the teacher language they recommend for introducing Tier 2 words.”

  • In the Third Nine Weeks of the Shared Reading unit, in Week 1, Day 1 students read Practice Makes Perfect for Rotten Ralph. The teacher states, "Look for words that you want to talk about. Our author is using some lovely words here.Think about the characters so far. Remember that characters have traits. Look back and decide what words you would use to describe Ralph, Percy, and Sarah."
  • In the Third Nine Weeks of the Interactive Read-Aloud unit, in Week 16, Day 3 student hear the text, Tornado. The teacher states, "Another word from our book is commanded. What word? Command means to tell someone to do something and not give them a choice about it. In the army, a general sometimes commands soldiers to do something. That means they must do it. When Tornado won’t drop the card, Pete’s father raises his voice. “‘Tornado, drop it!’ my daddy commanded.” And Tornado did drop the card. Another word for command is order. A little later, Pete’s dad talks to the dog again. “‘Drop it!’ my daddy ordered.” These words can mean the same thing. Command and order can mean to tell someone to do something and not give them a choice about it. What word?"

The Teacher's Manual states, “For information books, on the contrary, it is important to preview key vocabulary either just prior to the read-aloud or at the point the words are encountered during the read-aloud. Previewing does not mean teaching the words to mastery. It amounts to an introduction, a method of exposing children to their meanings and how they are related. We rely on a small number of effective instructional strategies for introducing disciplinary words, including concept of definition, semantic feature analysis, and other graphic approaches. It will not take long for children to become accustomed to how these approaches work.”

The First Nine Weeks shared reading unit focuses on the topic of life cycles. It includes titles such as; Tale of a Tadpole, From Tadpole to Frog, From Caterpillar to Butterfly, and The Journey of a Butterfly. Students are introduced to life cycles beginning with the tadpole which then progresses to frogs. The information and vocabulary learned in these two texts are then connected to the life cycle of a butterfly.

In the First Nine Weeks Shared Reading unit, in Week 7, Day 31 students read the text From Caterpillar to Butterfly. The teacher states, "Our book today has a table of contents to help us to know how the author has organized information. The information is about the life cycle of a butterfly. We learned about the life cycle of frogs. Remember that a cycle is a sequence of events that repeats. We will use the same cycle map to keep track of facts and information about butterflies. Look at the illustrations on the bottom of page 27. They show the life cycle of the butterfly. Think about how a butterfly life cycle is similar to a frog life cycle." In Week ,7 Day 35 students answer, "We’ve read about two life cycles now. How is the life cycle of a butterfly similar to the life cycle of a frog? How is it different? Let’s compare and contrast them. Compare means to say how they are alike. Contrast means to say how they are different."

During the Second Nine Weeks Interactive Read-Aloud unit while reading Arrow to the Sun, on Day 2, the teacher utilizes knowledge from another unit of study to discuss the vocabulary word transformed. For example, "Another word from our story is transformed. What word? Transformed means to be changed from one thing into another. A caterpillar is transformed into a butterfly. In our book, something like that happened to the boy. It says, “When the Boy came out of the Kiva of Lightning, he was transformed.” Transformed means to be changed from one thing into another. What word?"

Indicator 2f

Materials contain a year-long, cohesive plan of writing instruction and tasks which support students in building and communicating substantive understanding of topics and texts.
2/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet the expectations that materials contain writing tasks and instruction which support students in building and communicating substantive understanding of topics and texts.

Bookworms utilizes sentence composing with vocabulary words and response to the text to give students a chance to develop their writing skills and at the same time demonstrate and deepen their comprehension of the book that you have read aloud to them.

In the Grade 2 scope and sequence, Bookworms provides a shared text based writing document that lists the writing responses by type.

During the First Nine Weeks while reading Arthur's Back to School Day students respond to the following daily prompts and the types of writing:

  • What did you do to prepare for the new school year? Narrative
  • How did the first day of school get complicated for the friends? How do you think they felt? Opinion
  • If you had to focus on bus safety rules, what would you say? Description
  • How do you think the lunch boxes got switched? Opinion
  • Who do you think had the best first day at school? Tell why. Opinion

The Teacher's Manual states, “We strongly recommend the use of rubrics to evaluate student writing.” (Teacher’s Manual pg 44).” The rubrics that follow are of two kinds. The first allows the teacher to target the conventions, or mechanics, of written work (spelling, punctuation, etc.). The second focuses on the content and structure of the written product. We have provided three rubrics for this purpose, one for each of the three principal genres of the Common Core: (1) narrative writing, (2) information/explanatory writing, and (3) opinion writing (argumentation).”

On page 39-40 of the Teacher’s Manual, it states, “The two prompts and sentence composing are by no means intended as a substitute for process writing instruction, which is typically provided through workshop approaches. Although process writing is not a part of the Bookworms lesson plans, time for it is allocated during the 45-minute Interactive Read-Aloud segment. This time is available in two ways:

  • 1. Together, the read-aloud and sentence composing activity do not require 45 minutes. Teachers can use the remaining time for ongoing writing projects.
  • 2. There are not enough read-aloud lesson plans to fill an entire nine-week period. When the planned read-alouds run out, the teacher can use the remaining 45-minute periods for formal writing instruction, including research projects. Although there is writing within the Bookworms program which includes responding to literature and word study activities, there is no evidence showing that the Bookworms curriculum provides protocols for formal writing instruction, that teaches the writing process and supports students’ writing in a year long plan."

Indicator 2g

Materials include a progression of focused research projects to encourage students to develop knowledge in a given area by confronting and analyzing different aspects of a topic using multiple texts and source materials.
2/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet the expectations that materials include a progression of focused shared research and writing projects to encourage students to develop knowledge and understanding of a topic using texts and other source materials.

During the Fourth Nine Weeks of the Shared Reading unit, Bookworms provides six days where no shared reading lessons have been planned for a research and writing unit. The following is an outline of the six week unit:

  • Consider creating a class book, with children working in groups to write chapter on a shared topic. If possible, allow children to research on the internet.
    • Possible topics:
      • Egyptian gods and goddesses
      • Greek gods and goddesses
      • Famous Americans
      • United States Cities
      • United States States
    • Schedule:
      • Day 1
        • 1. Present Overall Goal and Form Groups
        • 2. Present a planning template for each chapter. Include text features: Chapter titles, subheadings illustrations, captions, diagrams, bold print.
        • 3. Present an introductory chapter that you’ve made that uses the template.
      • Day 2: Support students as they gather information for their chapter.
      • Day 3: Support students as they read and take notes on the information they have gathered.
      • Day 4: Support students as they use their notes and the template to draft their chapter.
      • Day 5: Support students as they revise their draft.
      • Day 6: Support students as they publish.

Although time and an outline for this unit are included, there is no progression of lessons provided to teach research and writing skills to students, which requires a different skill set. For example, prior to completing a research project students typically learn how to take notes, organize information and cite evidence from a variety of sources. These skills have not been covered within the Bookworms materials. The progression of focused shared research and writing projects is missing. In addition, there is no differentiation provided for students who struggle with reading and writing to successfully complete this project.

Indicator 2h

Materials provide a design, including accountability, for how students will regularly engage in a volume of independent reading either in or outside of class.
0/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials for Grade 2 do not meet expectations that materials provide a design, including accountability, for how students will regularly engage in a volume of independent reading either in or outside of class.

The only mentions of independent reading occurs in the Teacher's Manual in the Approximate Time Guide for Differentiated Instruction and during Homework Options. The Differentiated Instruction chart lists Self Selected Reading and Reading Log as one of the rotations during small group time. The Homework Option states, " We would like grade-level teams to collaborate to design a homework procedure. Good homework is predictable, meaningful, and simple. It provides additional practice for core concepts already taught in school. The most beneficial homework is reading. Teachers may opt to adopt a reading log for homework, provided that books from the library are provided. We do not intend for the shared reading books to be sent home to read for homework."

Though the Small Group time offers time in the schedule for self-selected reading and indicates that students should have reading logs, but no other information or support for independent reading has been provided. Materials will need to be developed by the teacher for supports/scaffolds to foster independent reading.

Gateway Three

Usability

Not Rated

Criterion 3a - 3e

null
0/8

Indicator 3a

Materials are well-designed and take into account effective lesson structure and pacing.
0/2

Indicator 3b

The teacher and student can reasonably complete the content within a regular school year, and the pacing allows for maximum student understanding.
0/2

Indicator 3c

The student resources include ample review and practice resources, clear directions, and explanation, and correct labeling of reference aids (e.g., visuals, maps, etc.).
0/2

Indicator 3d

Materials include publisher-produced alignment documentation of the standards addressed by specific questions, tasks, and assessment items.
0/2

Indicator 3e

The visual design (whether in print or digital) is not distracting or chaotic, but supports students in engaging thoughtfully with the subject.
0/0

Criterion 3f - 3j

Materials support teacher learning and understanding of the Standards.
0/8

Indicator 3f

Materials contain a teacher's edition with ample and useful annotations and suggestions on how to present the content in the student edition and in the ancillary materials. Where applicable, materials include teacher guidance for the use of embedded technology to support and enhance student learning.
0/2

Indicator 3g

Materials contain a teacher's edition that contains full, adult-level explanations and examples of the more advanced literacy concepts so that teachers can improve their own knowledge of the subject, as necessary.
0/2

Indicator 3h

Materials contain a teacher's edition that explains the role of the specific ELA/literacy standards in the context of the overall curriculum.
0/2

Indicator 3i

Materials contain explanations of the instructional approaches of the program and identification of the research-based strategies.
0/2

Indicator 3j

Materials contain strategies for informing all stakeholders, including students, parents, or caregivers about the ELA/literacy program and suggestions for how they can help support student progress and achievement.
0/0

Criterion 3k - 3n

Materials offer teachers resources and tools to collect ongoing data about student progress on the Standards.
0/8

Indicator 3k

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that genuinely measure student progress.
0/2

Indicator 3l

The purpose/use of each assessment is clear:
0/0

Indicator 3l.i

Assessments clearly denote which standards are being emphasized.
0/2

Indicator 3l.ii

Assessments provide sufficient guidance to teachers for interpreting student performance and suggestions for follow-up.
0/2

Indicator 3m

Materials should include routines and guidance that point out opportunities to monitor student progress.
0/2

Indicator 3n

Materials indicate how students are accountable for independent reading based on student choice and interest to build stamina, confidence, and motivation.
0/0

Criterion 3o - 3v

Materials provide teachers with strategies for meeting the needs of a range of learners so that they demonstrate independent ability with grade-level standards.
0/10

Indicator 3o

Materials provide teachers with strategies for meeting the needs of a range of learners so the content is accessible to all learners and supports them in meeting or exceeding the grade-level standards.
0/2

Indicator 3p

Materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level, or in a language other than English, with extensive opportunities to work with grade level text and meet or exceed grade-level standards.
0/4

Indicator 3q

Materials regularly include extensions and/or more advanced opportunities for students who read, write, speak, or listen above grade level.
0/2

Indicator 3r

Materials provide opportunities for teachers to use a variety of grouping strategies.
0/2

Indicator 3s

0/

Indicator 3s3v

0/

Indicator 3t

0/

Indicator 3u

0/

Indicator 3u.i

0/

Indicator 3u.ii

0/

Indicator 3v

0/

Criterion 3s - 3v

Materials support effective use of technology to enhance student learning. Digital materials are accessible and available in multiple platforms.
0/0

Indicator 3s

Digital materials (either included as supplementary to a textbook or as part of a digital curriculum) are web-based, compatible with multiple Internet browsers (e.g., Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, etc.), "platform neutral" (i.e., are compatible with multiple operating systems such as Windows and Apple and are not proprietary to any single platform), follow universal programming style, and allow the use of tablets and mobile devices.
0/0

Indicator 3t

Materials support effective use of technology to enhance student learning, drawing attention to evidence and texts as appropriate.
0/0

Indicator 3u

Materials can be easily customized for individual learners.
0/0

Indicator 3u.i

Digital materials include opportunities for teachers to personalize learning for all students, using adaptive or other technological innovations.
0/0

Indicator 3u.ii

Materials can be easily customized for local use.
0/0

Indicator 3v

Materials include or reference technology that provides opportunities for teachers and/or students to collaborate with each other (e.g. websites, discussion groups, webinars, etc.).
0/0

Additional Publication Details

Report Published Date: Sun Apr 09 00:00:00 UTC 2017

Report Edition: 2017

About Publishers Responses

All publishers are invited to provide an orientation to the educator-led team that will be reviewing their materials. The review teams also can ask publishers clarifying questions about their programs throughout the review process.

Once a review is complete, publishers have the opportunity to post a 1,500-word response to the educator report and a 1,500-word document that includes any background information or research on the instructional materials.

Educator-Led Review Teams

Each report found on EdReports.org represents hundreds of hours of work by educator reviewers. Working in teams of 4-5, reviewers use educator-developed review tools, evidence guides, and key documents to thoroughly examine their sets of materials.

After receiving over 25 hours of training on the EdReports.org review tool and process, teams meet weekly over the course of several months to share evidence, come to consensus on scoring, and write the evidence that ultimately is shared on the website.

All team members look at every grade and indicator, ensuring that the entire team considers the program in full. The team lead and calibrator also meet in cross-team PLCs to ensure that the tool is being applied consistently among review teams. Final reports are the result of multiple educators analyzing every page, calibrating all findings, and reaching a unified conclusion.

ELA K-2 Rubric and Evidence Guides

The ELA review rubrics identify the criteria and indicators for high quality instructional materials. The rubrics support a sequential review process that reflect the importance of alignment to the standards then consider other high-quality attributes of curriculum as recommended by educators.

For ELA, our rubrics evaluate materials based on:

  • Text Quality and Complexity, and Alignment to Standards with Tasks Grounded in Evidence
  • Building Knowledge with Texts, Vocabulary, and Tasks
  • Instructional Supports and Usability

The ELA Evidence Guides complement the rubrics by elaborating details for each indicator including the purpose of the indicator, information on how to collect evidence, guiding questions and discussion prompts, and scoring criteria.

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